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Sunday, June 30, 2013

CANAANITES IN THEIR LANDS Part 2 Afro-Asiatic Israel and Aram


CANAANITES IN THEIR LANDS Part II     Afro-Asiatic Israel and Aram by Dana W. Reynolds
 


A young man walks in Saudi Arabia's  Rub al-Khali (meaning "Empty Quarter") Desert  in the south central area of the Arabian peninsula.
 


Pictured here are said to be some early "Amurru" at a town called Mari. Traditionally known as  "Ad", "Aram" and "Akkad" the earliest Amurru moved early on from southern Arabia (Al-Yaman) to Syria and Mesopotamia where the Akkadian language developed and where they absorbed non-Afro-Asiatic, Syrian people. Since the chronology of the ancient Near East is largely dependent on the ancient Egyptian one (believed by some archaeologists to be greatly distorted), archaeologists are in truth not certain as to what period this painting and the Akkadian civilization belongs.: ) 
Modern man of the Sana'a in the Yemen - original home of the semilegendary Muzaikiyya of Marib (Meribah - Exodus 17; Numbers 20:14; Psalm 81:7) and "the Rephaim Amorites" of Rephidim. Here the original Israelites once fought against their Amorite brethren. And "...Moses struck the rock as was told and water gushed out as the elders of Israel looked on. And he named the place Massah and Meribah because the children of Israel quarreled with Moses and tested the Lord saying 'is the Lord among us or not'". Exodus 17:6-7).

The tribe of Ad was descended from Ad, the son of Aws, the son of Aram, the son of Sem the son of Noah  who after the confusion of tongues, settled in al Ahkaf or the winding sands in the province of Hadramaut, where his posterity greatly multiplied. Their first king was Shedad the son of Ad of whom the eastern writers  deliver many fabulous things…” From The Koran, translation and notes by George Sale,” 1890, p.5.
 

 Joseph and Asenath, and the Solymi Connection

      Here might be good point to speak of the story of Yusuf or Joseph, son of Jacob mentioned by Ibn Abd Rabbih. This Yusuf or Asaf as he is also named in Arabic tales was in the biblical story a man who lived in Canaan, where his grandfather was from. His brothers had thrown him into a well and then some “Midianites”, whom the Bible also calls “Ismailites” or children of Ishmael, came along and lifted him from the well and then sold him to an important person  of  a place called “Mitzraim”.  As Salibi points out this Mizraim or Mitzraim has been misinterpreted in western translations of the Bible as the modern Egypt, when in fact it was likely an area in southwest Arabia either the Misramah of the Asir region or some where else where the Azd tribes of Kahlan lived and lived.  
        Asaf was associated with “Asiyyah” (meaning wild antelope or cow) who in Arab tradition is called “the Israelite woman”. She is sometimes called Asiyya bayt Muzahhim. But her traditional lineage or genealogy appears to makes her a descendant of the Sulaim bin Mansur, a tribe of Qays Ailan ultimately from the Azd in Hijaz and Central Arabia.  And it was from Banu Sulaim the son of  Mansur that descended “Ra’l, Zakwan, ‘Asiyyah ibn Khuyfaf ibn Imri’ Al- Qais ibn Buhthah ibn Sulaim and Za’b ibn Malik ibn Khufaf ibn Imri’ Al- Qais ibn Buhthah ibn Sulaim”  (Abdul Wahab, 2006; Phillips, R., p. 65).
       Thus, the 11th c. Cordoban Ibn Abd Rabbih wrote that the Banu Sulaym: were represented by “Dhakwan, Bahz and Buhtha” ( Abd Rabbih, p. 261) (Dhakwan is also written Zakwan or Zaakwan.)
       This posting is to show that the Sulaym group just mentioned are often connected with names that are Arabized forms of the individuals surrounding the biblical Joseph and his son Jacob in ancient Hebraic stories. They include aside from Assiyya or Asenath, Potiphar – her father, Joseph's mother Rachel (Jacob’s favorite wife), and brother Benjamin, Bahila (Rachel’s handmaid who then marries Jacob), the sons of Bahila, or Ghuni, Sallum, Suham, Jahzi’el, and Jeser or Jezer, the sons of Zilpah daughter of Laban -Gad and Asher, and Yissachar, the son of Leah (who was Jacob’s wife and Rachel’s younger sister), Manasseh, Ephraim, Levi, Gershon, Arodi son of Gad, Naaman, Rosh and Elon to name but a few of Jacob's "posterity". In other words, "the Israelites".
        But, in addition, closely connected with Sulaym are found names of a few Edomite or Horite tribes or “dukes” mentioned in Genesis 36 – including Zubyan or Zibeon and son Aja/Aia or Ashja’a, Zakwan or Zaavan and Yaakan or Akan, sons of Ezer (Assir). In the Bible they are said to be Hivite and Horite chiefs, children of Canaan and Edom.
       Middle Eastern folk traditions or mythos surrrounding Moses and Josephus make these people mostly "Amalekite" rulers of a locale called “Misra”. (Josephus in fact divided the peoples of Edom into Amalekites and "Gebalites".) (Hebbe, p. 401).
        Al-Tabari and Kahb al- Ahbar for example mentioned that the brother of the king of “Misra” that ruled in the time of Joseph and drowned in the Red Sea was Qabus, a descendant of Faran the Amalekite (See Part I)  Al Tabari calls him “Qabus b. Mus'ab b. Mu'awiyah b. Numayr b. al-Salwas b. Faran b. Amr b. Amalek” ( Prophets and Patriarchs, p. 154)
        Tabari wrote concerning Qabus and his brother Walid a text translated as follows:
“Moses was born to Amran and his mother was Jochebed, and some say that her name was Anahid.  His wife was Zipporah bt. Jethro, who is Shu’ayb the prophet.  Moses begat Gershom and Eliezer.  He left for Midian out of fear when he was forty-one years old and called people to the religion of Abraham.  God appeared to him at Mt. Sinai, when he was eighty years old.  The pharaoh of Egypt in his days was Qabus b. Mus’ab b. Mu’awiyah the second master of Joseph.   His wife was Asiyah bt. Muzahim b. Ubayd b. al-Rayyan b. Al Walid the first pharaoh of Joseph. When Moses was called he was informed that Qabus b. Mus’ab had died and that his brother, al-Walid b. Mus’ab had taken his place…It was said the al-Walid married Asiyah bt. Muzahim after his brother.” From the Ta'rīkh al-rusul wa'l-mulūk “Prophets and Kings” (Brinner, 1991, pp. 30-31)
        Now it is said Walid, brother of Kabus was the ruler who drowned in the Red Sea. Of Walid it has been written “Walid, the brother of Kabus, is generally supposed to be that king of Egypt with whom Moses had to do, and who was drowned in the Red Sea. Most of the commentators on the Koran tell us this prince was an Arab of the tribe of Ad, or, as others say, of Amalek, who were also Arabians, though some pretend he was of Koptic descent (Fielden, J.L., 1876,  p.24-25).  What’s more, Tabari and Ibn Kathir wrote when Joseph was purchased, “the Amalekite” named Al –Rayyan or Riyan son of al-Walid was in charge of Misr .   Tabari also wrote as follows with regards to Joseph and Potiphar:
 “Joseph was sold for twenty dirhams by his brother…As for the man who bought Joseph from Malik b. Da’ar in Egypt and who said to his wife ‘Receive him honorably’, Ibn Abbas reports that his name was Qittin. According to Muhammed b. Sa’d…Ibn Abbas:  the name of the one who bought him was Qatafir(Potiphar), and it is said that his name was Itfir b. Rawhib and that he was ruler and in charge of the Egyptian Treasury. At that time the King was al Rayyan b. Al-Walid a man of Amalekite stock…” (Brinner, p. 153).
      Of Walid it is said that he is the first to be called “pharaoh” and he was “of the tribe of Ad although others say that of Amlak, i.e. an Amalekite” (1747, p. 117) “Another account gives the full name of the king and Pharaoh of Egypt at that time as al-Rayyan b. Al-Walid b. Tharwan b. Arashah b. Qaran b. ‘Amr b. Imlaq b. Lud b. Shem b. Noah”  (Brinner, p. 153)   Another version says that Daluka ruled after Walid.  She is sometimes said to be his daughter or a distant relation of his (1747, p. 118).

Daluka, surnamed Al Ajuz, or the Old Woman of the royal blood, succeed the pharoah who drowned in the Red Sea. This queen is said to have been the most expert woman of her time in  magic. Shelived a hundred years, and encompassed the city of Mesr with walls…I quote this account for what it is worth. So far, it confirms the statement of other authors, that aboutor in the time of Joseph and the sojourn of the Israelites, Egypt was ruled by Pharaohs or kings of Esau's race, when they threw off the yoke of Jacob (Fielden,  p. 25). 
      
      Josephus divided the land of Edomites into Amalekites and Gebalites (Hebbe, 1848, p. 401). Although authors sometimes use or translate the name Misra or Kipti as the modern country of "Egypt", in the usage of the early Arab writers these names often refer to Amalekite peoples rather than the country of Egypt they are said to have conquered. After Daluka daughter of "the Amalekite", the ruler who succeeds her is called Darkun, son of Malthus or Baltus (Crosthwaite, 1839, p.234; Sale, 1747, p. 118).  This name sounds like another name for an ancient "Himyarite " king Dhu Tarkun.
     Then came Thardan king of the Amalekites. one version says that Walid was his son. Thardan was son of Amalek son of Eliphaz son of Esau - "Jacob's twin brother" (Fielden, p. 91). Scholars now consider that this name of Daluka ,daughter of Zabba (also called Zaffan), to be in fact “Zuleika” of other Arab tradition (El Daly, 2005, p. 133). And, this Zabba may be Za'b ibn Malik a tribe of Khufaf mentioned above. He is perhaps Zebah (also spelt Zeeb or Zebab) the biblical Midianite ruler, if not "Zephon" son of Gad son of Zilpah.
       It is very possible then that the name of  “Zilpah” is related to "Zuleikha" in the way the name "Tarikha", wife of Moses is also spelt "Zarifah" (biblical Zipphorah). Zilpah’s sister is according to Rabbinic sources is Bilha and both “Bilha” and  “Rachel” are names closely related to that confederation of tribes in Hijaz and Central Arabia known as Ghatafan and Banu Sulaym.  Otherwise Zuleika also has the same role as Asenath in the Bible. And most scholars consider her to be Asenath. Zuleika of the Quran is the seducer of Joseph and wife of Potiphar.  Some sources refer to Potiphar’s wife as Ra’il rather than Zuleika. Ra’il, Ra'la or Rahil in English is "Rachel", who is wife of Jacob. (See Genesis 29) 

ANCIENT SOLYMI AND EARLY SOLEYM

       The genealogy for the tribe of Sulaym is Sulaym. b. Mansur b. 'Ikrima son of  Khasafa (Khanam, p. 720). The latter’s brother was Ghatafan and they were sons of Qays Ailan, “son of Mudar”.  Thus writes the author of the recent compilation The Sealed Nectar, “Of Qais 'Ailan were the Banu Saleem, Banu Hawazin, and Banu Ghatafan of whom descended 'Abs, Zubyan, Ashja' and Ghani bin A'sur…” (al-Mubarakpuri, 2002, p. 11).
     Referring to the confederation of tribes called Mudar or Muzar another writer notes, “The two main branches of the north Arabs descend through Mudar and Rabi’a. From the former, through Qays Aylan, spring Bahila, Hawazin and Ghatafan. Thaqif are descended from Hawazin, and 'Abs and Dhubyan from Ghatafan.” (Meisami and Starkey, 1998, p. 780).
     The clans of ‘Abs and “Ghutayf” are mentioned as batun or clans of the Murad tribe of the Maddhij in Yemen in early Islamic sources as well (Mad’aj, 1988, p. 91).
       It is known that the Ghatafan were bedouins that in early Islamic times that “lived between Medina and Kheibar, the main Jewish oasis to the north of Medina. The Beni Sulaym lived to the south of Medina, astride the main caravan route from Mecca”(Gabriel, 2011, p. 109).  However before settling in Medina they were a people which included the Ghutayf of the Tayyi who belonged to a clan called Murad. Both the Tayyi and the Murad were of the Arabian group called Maddhij (or Maddhig). The southern Arabian genealogical tradition asserts that the Bahila, Ghani Bin Asur, Ghutayf and Ghatafan and Abs and Ashja’ of North Arabia were originally Yemenite tribes of Kahlan belonging to Banu Maddhij and Azd of Saba.
      The 9th c. Ibn Jahiz lists Ghutayf and Ghatafan together in his Book of Misers together noting – “the Tayy, Ghutayf and Ghatafan tribes”  summoned “one another to war with the braying sound of a donkey” - as is still done in Arabia. The commentator of this book correctly notes that Ghutayf b. Harithah was a clan that was head of Ghatafan and as “a tribe of Tayyi… in the Mountain of Tayyi area” ( Sergeant, Book of Misers p. 201  fn. 1001)
     The Tayyi were a people of Yemen related to the Banu Madhhij. The mountains of Tayyi mentioned are located in north central Arabia. Early in pre-Islamic times the Tayyi had settled in Iraq so that these Arabs were the people who were most often met with in Persia during the Sassanid era, and the land of “Tajikistan” is actually derived from their name as well as the Chinese word “Dashi’ for Arabs (Park, H. 2012, 203).


Shammar men of the Banu Tayyi Arabs in Arabia. Photo dated 1932 from Bertram Thomas's work, Arabia Felix, Across the Empty Quarter
       The original "children of Noah" such as the Tayyi, like the rest of the early Arabs including the Solymi were an Ethiopic people. “The home of the Tayyi, Shammar, consisted of two parallel ranges called Aja and Salma…” (Shahid, 2002, p. 251). Ibn Mandour in the 14th century wrote "the predominant complexion of the Arabs is dark brownish black and that of the non-Arabs is white."  Lisaan al-Arab IV:209.  Unlike the Syrian-originated tribes also called Shammar in Arabia today, the true Arab Shammar Tayyi from Arabia still wear the customary Saracen attire described by ancient writers.
        The name of the Shammar is supposed to be linked to that of the semilegendary figure, King Shammar of Yemen, who lived in the reign of Kai Kaus or Kabus of Persia thousands of years ago. The names Shammar, Tayy or Taj and Murad also figure in the legends and folklore of the ancient world and the allegories surrounding them are based partly on astronomical mythology.
      Tayyi is mentioned as a “son of Maddhij” by Ibn abd Rabbih  referencing the 9th century  Ibn Kalbi, and by others he is considered a brother (Abd Rabbih, p. 294). In the early Islamic period in Yemen the Ghutayf are designated a “batn” or clan of Murad branch of the Maddhij (Mad’aj, 1988, p. 91.) Rabbih writes “in the clan of Najiya ibn Murad are the Banu Ghutayf ibn Abd Allah ibn Najiya , and it is said they are Azdites”(Rabbih, 2012, p. 294).
     The ‘Abs and Dhubyan (also written Zubyan or Thibyaan, are named clans of the Murad and Madhhij in Yemenite early Islamic Yemenite texts (Maddh’aj, p. 91). While in the north they are considered tribes of Ghatafan from Qays AilanAbs a batn of the Murad (Mad’aj, p. 91) belonging to Maddhij were at one time “the most powerful element” in Ghatafan. (Kennedy, 2005, p. 252).
       The Sulaym are well known in Arab texts of Ibn Athir circa 11th c. and Jahiz (9th c.) as a very black –skinned population living in the harrat region of Medina.  Like the Sulaym, the Abs are according to Ibn Abd Rabbih the 6th volume of  The Unique Necklace said to have been described by an eyewitness “black-skinned men shaking their spears”.  And the photos of the Tayyi and Madhij above speak for themselves.
         This name of Ghutayf or Ghatafan may very well have some connection with the Near East or Muslim stories of Qittifin, Itfin, Itfir, or “ Kitfir” known in the west as Potiphar.  Notes one interpretor of Tabari’s book, Prophets and Patriarchs.The biblical name Potiphar appears in a variety of forms in Arabic sources, among them Qittin, Qittifin, Qutifar, Qitfir, Itfir, and Itfin.  See Shorter Encyc., 647, s.v. Yusuf b. Ya’kub.” ( Brinner, W. 1987, p. 153, fn. 362.)
        In the Ethiopic version of the story of Joseph as well apparently, an individual named “Qatifan” is said to be the adopted parent of Joseph. Tabari says that this individual was also known as Potiphar whose wife asked of Joseph “an evil act”. In the Torah or western Bible Joseph is a slave whom Potiphar’s wife attempts to seduce  Genesis 39:7-8 reads, "And it came to pass after these things, that his master's wife cast her eyes upon Joseph; and she said, lie with me, but he refused..."
         Richard Burton in his Arabian Knights writes Kitfir or Itfir (Potiphar)… his wife (Rail or Zulaykha) charged Joseph with attempting her chastity …” (Burton, 2009, fn. 210; parentheses are Burton’s). Thus, sometimes the woman in Arab tales is called Ra’il or Rahil, which is the name  Rachel, though she is made the mother of Joseph in the biblical version.
      According to Tabari, Potiphar’s wife was Ra’il, while the name of the man who bought Joseph was Qittin or “Qatafir (Potiphar), and it is said that his name was Itfir b. Rawhib.” (Brinner, p. 154.) Thus though Rachel is Joseph’s mother in the Western tradition, and Joseph’s seducer in traditions of the Middle East.
      Through Asenath, Joseph (also called Zaphnath) had two sons Manasseh and Ephraim. Tabari speaks of Asenath as  Asiyya “the Israelite woman”.  Names of the closely related group of tribes Rahil or Ra’la, or Rachel, Qitifan, and Assiyya (who was Asenath) were undoubtedly brought to Syria and the Hijaz from the area of  the Yemen. The name Manasseh likely corresponds to the name Mansour father of Soleym, recorded as Manasseir further south or "Manuchehr" in Iranian. The name Faran was identified as Ephraim his brother by Salibi.
       Soleym or Sulaym bin Mansur tribe of the Harra was in fact maternally derived from the Ateek and other Azd in Arab genealogy. Tabari writes of “the first of the Atikahs of the tribe of Quraysh who were female ancestors of the Messenger of God” (Watt, p 27). Thus, the Prophet of Islam always traced his maternal lineage from women named Ateek of the Sulaym tribe. According to one author the “ Prophet was wont to say 'I am the son of the El Awatek from the tribe of Solayem, [Atika, daughter of Hilal, Atika, daughter of Mora and Atika, daughter of El Awkass from the tribe of Sulaym…]” (El-Saadawi, 2007, p. 189).
        In the south among the Azd descended Dawasir, the tribe appears to be referred to as Suwelayim or Salaiyim (Lorimer, 1908, p. 394). The first Atikah was said to be the grandaughter of Nadr bin Kinanah (see part I) and mother of Lua’ay who was father of the clan of Ka’b bin Lu’ayy.
      By the period of the 9th century BC, it is quite probable Greeks like Homer knew them as the Solymi of Pisidia and Lycia and Asphalitis (the Dead Sea) in Israel and Jordan who they relate to Eastern Ethiopians and whose language they also categorize as a Phoenician type dialect. Ronald Syme noted “Choerilus says that they wore helmets of hide, made out of horses’heads. That is the distinctive badge of the eastern Ethiopian levies in Herodotus (7.70)   He adds Homer in Odysseus  5.283 “provides the link between Solymi and Ethiopians-when Poseidon paused and surveyed the seas from the vantage-point on the Solyma moyuntains he was returning from Ethiopian festivities.” (Gonzales, M. 2005, 261-282) (The matter of the Sulayim and Amluk as Meluchha and Mlecchas and “Ethiopians” of Arabia and Asia is to be discussed in Part III.)
       Here we can note however that this Lu’ayy of the Azd was in fact the same name as “Levi” of the Bible and his ancestor El-Yas was the biblical or Hebrew Elias “the Levite”, otherwise known as Elijah. It will be shown how these groups originated as people of the Azd of southern Arabia or Canaanites and moved into the region of Hijaz before entering Syria and the rest of the ancient world. 


Early depiction by non-Arabs of Elias (El-Yas) "the Priest"
       In Part I the relationship of some of ancient Afro-Arabians with the original Hebraic peoples featured in the Torah or Bible as addressed by ancient and Middle Eastern documenters was discussed.  It was noted the early Arabic writings refer to the south Arabian people of chapter 25 of Genesis the children of Keturah (still known as Bait Kathir), Udad (Yudadas or Dedan), Al-Tawsim (Letushim), Ashurim, Luqaym/Lakhm (Lehummim), Ghassan (Jokshan), the Afran/Afras (Afras or Aphren), and Myda’an  or Maadi’an  (Midian or Midianites), as a closely related people of “Ad” and “Azd” i.e. Amalekite/Melukhha ancestry originating in the Yemen. These were at one time the confederation of camel-owning incense traders of  “Qeturah”, which leaving the Yemen had settled in Hijaz and in the “troglodyte” regions of Africa.  We are told by Josephus the Jewish Roman historian that these same people came to settle in “western Ethiopia” or further west in Africa and had conquered the north African coastal regions under Cathim, “Herakles” and “Didorus”-  who are the folk ancestors Katam, (Gibb, 1954, p. 540) Herak, Herik and Daris in the genealogies of the Tuareg and other remnants of the original “Libyo-Berbers”  (MacMichael, 1922, 202).
        We have also seen that contrary to what is found in modern or biblical tradition, such Midianite or Israelite leaders, Moses, Solomon, Barak, Jephunah, Lokman/Baalam and Amram/Amran (relative of Moses) figure regularly in various early Arabian, and Middle Eastern texts in general as individuals of the “Imlaq”, “Amluq” or Amalekites of southern and western Arabia otherwise designated by the names of A’ad (Adites), Aus (Uz) and  Azd. It is not hard to see that those called in south Arabian folk history the Ufayr b. Luqaym (or Lakhm) and named the “‘chiefs of the last Ad” in Yemeni or south Arabian folk history (Crosby, 2007, p. 130) are the same as the Aphren of the Genesis, brother of “Lehumim” both children of Qeturah and Abraham.
       These tribes and clans of the Afro-Arabian peoples - an extension of Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples of the Nile, east Africa and Nubia who’d been in Arabia for thousands of years are those who moved north into Syria, Mesopotamia and Anatolia carrying their names i.e. Soleymi or Solymi and Masikha or Meshech.  These “children of Noah” who expanded further abroad are known in the Bible as children of Japhet or Iapetos, also called Jupiter.
        But, as a result of the misplaced territories of the biblical Israelites and Mizraim and/or Misra in western tradition, many modern archaeologists and other scholars rightfully doubt the historicity of the Torah or Bible and especially its late interpretations of ancient Egyptian/Israelite relations.  
     As noted in Thomas Cheyne’s 1902, Encyclopedia Biblica, under the heading Mizraim, “The connection of Solomon, however, with Egypt is very disputable; it was probably with the N. Arabian Musri that he was connected by marriage”  (Cheyne, 1902, p. 129).
       The 5th century AD Armenian, St. Moses of Khorene refers to Mizraim as son of Kush, and it appears that the ancient and modern Arabian confederation of Musra or Musri (modern Masruh or Musruh) were in fact the most common Misra referred to in the Bible. The names Kipti and Keftiu also appear to have been related to and originally referred to peoples and places unrelated to modern Egypt, which in truth had its own name of Khamit until a late period. The Qahtan confederation still called Musruh or Masruh, located in the same region as the ancient Musri even in the 20th century includes names strikingly similar to those designated children of Misrah son of Ham in the Bible (to be discussed in Part 3).

HOW THE MIDIANITES BECAME ISRAELITES

        Azd tribes and followers of Muzaikiyya that had moved northward are often referred to as Adnanites or Ishmaelites, but we will see their names are clearly connected to those of the biblical Israelites as well.  It will be shown that these Arabian Masruh comprising groups of people that came to be known as “the northern Arabs” in contrast to “the southern Arabs”, are in fact among those designated “the peoples of Judah” and Israel in the western Bible, but were for the most part originally “Yemenites” as well.
        Here is one small example of what I mean. Tabari wrote – “it has been said the Banu Ma’n of the Azd are called the Bahilah” (Blankenship, 1989, p. 11).  Now, historically, the Azd-descended Bahila after leaving the Marib area were known to have pastured their flocks in a region called  Sawd or Sud Bahila (Sud or Sawad signifies black, rich and cultivated soil) where large quantities of silver and brass were reportedly mined in pre-Islamic times (this is the southern region of the Yemamah mines in the area of the Nejd in south Central Arabia). This district was or is filled with gold and silver mines which have been worked from ancient times.
      Bahila had come to settle in the part of Yemama called Irid or Irdh (the same word as biblical Arodh meaning donkey) or Irdh Shamam. In this area is the town of Hafir with mines called after the Al-Hufaira tribe. This name is not improbably the same as the famed Ophir, a locale of the book of Job in the Bible where Solomon mined gold. It is associated associated with a major center called Juzaila or Djazala in the Ird (Al Askar, 2002,  pp. 49-50).  The Bahila are also early on mentioned with a tribe called Jasr or Jasir in the Bisha (or Bisah) region in Asir (Khanam, p. 92). 
      Other branches of the tribe of Bahila that were well-known in Arab genealogy include the Ghani also translated Ghunay or Ghaniyy living also in the Bisha region, also the Suhm or Sahm (Ibn Abd Rabbih, 2012, vol. 3 p. 269) and Ya’sur or A’sur.  Thus one author wrote, “Among the ancient poets is Munabbih A’sur ibn Sa’d the progenitor of Bahila, Ghani and At-Tufawa” (Howell, 1883,  M. p. 525)  According to one encyclopedia on the Middle East, Bahila was the mother of Malik bin Asur …the brothers that came to make up the Bahila bin Y’asur or Asur. Bahila, are thus called “ Bahila b. A'sur, brothers of the Ghani" (R. Khanam  2005 p. 92).  This may be the Munabbih, who were a sub-tribe of the Yemenite Madhhij from the tribe of Banu Hamdan (Kays, p. 339).
                Now all of this is mentioned because according to the Bible in1 Chronicles 7:13 and Genesis 46:25 one of Jacob’s concubines is named ‘Bilhah” the niece of Isaac’s wife “Rebecca”  according to Rabbinic sources.  Bilha’s sons were Dan and Naphtali whose children are mentioned in  Numbers 26:48-50, which reads, “The descendants of Naphtali by their clans were: through Jahzeel, the Jahzeelite clan; through Guni, the Gunite clan;  through Jezer, the Jezerite clan;  through Shillem, the Shillemite clan.  These were the clans of Naphtali; those numbered were 45,400.”  This Jahzeel, Guni and Jezer of Bilha are seemingly the names of Azd clans of Bahila of the Asir (Bisha region) with her offshoots of Ghunay/Ghani (Ghuni) and Jasr/Jasir (Jezer), along with  Juzaila or Jazila (Jahzi’el/Jahzeel)(Khanam, p. 92). Abd Ibn Rabbihu also writes “Lakhm begat Jazila”. (p. 296). See below and Part I on the Azd tribe of Lakhm and Ma’n.
       Furthermore, Bahila traditionally has a clan called Banu Suhm or Sahm, whose genealogy is Suhm b. Amr b. Thalabah B. b. Ghanm b. Qutayba b. Ma’n b. Malik b. Asur (Landau- Tasseron, 1998, p. 84). Ibn Abd Rabbih thus wrote that the clan of “Sahm was in Bahila” (Rabbih, 2012, p. 269).  Thus it is not coincidence that in the Bible book of Numbers 26:42 says of Bahila’s son Dan - “These were the descendants of Dan by their clans: through Suham, the Suhamite clan. These were the clans of Dan: All of them were Suhamite clans; and those numbered were 64,400.
       According to an early Arab source, "originally Bahila was the name of a woman of Hamdan who was [married] to Ma'an".
 

      The Habbaniyya or Habban of Hadramaut claim they are of the clan of Dan children of "Bilha". Not surprisingly, Arab sources make them a clan of "Bahila" as well.

             The Arab text transcribed by Harold MacMichaels also states the "Habbani'a are the descendants of Habban, son of el Kulus, son of Amr, son of Kays, a sub-tribe of Bahila" (MacMichaels,  1922, p. 186).
         The tribe of Dan from which the Arabian Habbani claim descent according to the book of Judges of the Bible lived between the region of Zorah and Eshtaol which Salibi identified with the modern al-Zarah and al-Ishta in the Zahran region of the Asir, former homeland of the Zahran tribe of the Azd (Zahran is the name of a Dawasir clan and tribal ancestor) (Salibi, 1985, p. 162). The book of Judges 18:8 reads, “When they returned to Zorah and Eshtaol, their fellow Danites asked them, ‘How did you find things?’" (New International Bible, 2011 translation). Thus, names of the Azd tribe of Ma’n bin Malik bin Ya’sur are seemingly related to the names of the ancient Israelite homelands. Bilha of the biblical land of Israel is unquestionably the Bahila of the highlands Asir Tihama and south Ird in Central Arabia.
       Not surprisingly the site of the ancient Israelite Eshtaol has yet to be decided upon by modern scholars. The modern town called Eshtaol in Israel was only founded in 1949. Says one recent specialist, “The location of biblical Eshtaol has been greatly disputed over the years. Scholars have agreed on a general location for the city, but not on the actual site” (Chestnut, 2008, p. 3) This name of Dan corresponds to that of the Azd or Dawasir tribe Duwaniyyah or Dhuwayyin and Dandan in the Asir region both being probably plural for Dan as suggested by Salibi.
        Though difficult to believe it is fascinating to discover that in fact the Azd of the region of Asir, the Yemen and south Central Arabia were the people that appear to have figured in the early Hebrew texts as “children of Israel” or “Yisra’el” through various concubines of Jacob. It will be shown that the Bahilah clans that were kinsmen to Banu Ma’n bin Malik b. Y’asur, originated from the Ma’an, i.e. Minaeans or Me’unim who had also lived in both Yemen and Hadramaut and traded with the Phoenician town of Tyre (Sur - which Salibi identifies as a town in the Yemen, not Lebanon).  In fact a town of Faniqa -  probably named for the latter population - still lies in the Wadi Bisha region not far from the Eritrean Sea where Herodotus claimed the Phoenicians originated (Salibi, 2007,  p. 159). The name of this town can obviously be related to that of the Fenkhu - the ancient Egyptian word for  “Phoenician”..

        The earliest mention of the Ma’an or Ma’n of the Azd is in the western region of Hadramaut (south central part of al-Yaman or theYemen), and they appear to be called Ma’onites or Me’unim in the Bible. And, they are the historical Ma’in or Minaeans of modern archaeologists. By the 4th century, inscriptions mention Minaean caravans at Dedan in the northern region of the Hijaz (Negev and Gibson, 2001, p. 137). From inscriptions it is also known that they worshipped a deity known Yasurbaal or Yasrabel which some believe to be “Baal Sur” of the Canaanites of Tyre (or Sur).  Baal Sur was called Melkarth (a name to which is related that of the hero “Heracles”).   
        Scholars don’t look at the Mineans as the Phoenicians and are not clear on when the Minaean culture originated. “Having some time ago discarded the old chronological scheme supported by Glaser and partly based on Arabic sources, according to which the origin of the Minaean Kingdom dated back to the beginning to the second millennium B.C. scholars have been trying to clarify the chronology of the South Arabian Kingdoms, on the additional basis of the data obtained from excavations …”  (Costa, 1978,pp. 11-12)   
       Most interestingly it had been noticed by some that the name of Levi and the Levites - who were the Israelite priests - is found in Minean inscriptions (Cohu, John R., p. 18, fn. ) Bible dictionaries also make the name “Meunim”, that of a Levite”;  and “head of a group of temple servants in Ezra's time.” The author of Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions, the Dominican priest Roland de Vaux, mentioned the association of the Minaeans with the Levitic traditions of the Israelites, but dismissed in a round-about way the Minean connection to the origins of this priestly caste.
      De Vaux wrote “some writers have concluded that the Israelites adopted the institution of Levites from those early Arabs with whom they had been in contact at Sinai.”  But he argued the words lw and lw’t were found only in Minaean inscriptions from Northern Arabia, at Dedan, and never in those from the South, nor in any other South Arabian dialect. And thus he proposed that the Minaeans may have borrowed the word from a colony of Babylonians installed in Dedan where there were also presumably Jews (de Vaux, 1997, p. 369) and then he suggests theformer “modified the sense of the term and gave it a feminine which did not exist in Hebrew.”
      Lawy or Lowi is often found in medieval Arab genealogies as the name Lu’ayy. Tabari claimed that one tradition was that the mother of Lu’ayy, Atikah, was from the tribe of Kinanah and a descendant of an individual named Luhay. One tradition says she was called “Salma” granddaughter of Luhay who was a great grandson of Amr Muzaikiyya (Moses) grandson of Khuza’a.  Thus an encyclopaedia reference regarding the Khuza’a clan of the Azd reads.    

KHUZA  b. Amr, name of a South-Arabian tribe, a branch of the large tribe of Azd. The genealogists with few exceptions are unanimous in tracing their pedigree through ‘Amr, surnamed  Luhay b. Rabi’a b. Haritha b. Muzaikiya and they agree further that they, together with the other branches of the Azd, left South Arabia at a remote time and wandered with them to the North. When they reached the territory of Mekka, most of their kinsmen continued their journey, the Ghassan to Syria, Azd Sanua to Oman, but Luhay remained with his clan near Mekka” (Krenkow, 2013).    

     These children of Luhay from the tribe of Khuza or Khaza’a came to be called Laheyan or “Lihyanites”, a people historically affiliated with the Minaeans. Retso notes Dedan was taken over by a new tribe or dynasty, Lihyan. We also find the presence of another new entity there, namely the Minaeans who came from South Arabia and set up a colony in Dedan obviously in cooperation with Lihyan.” According to one source however,The Lihyanite dialect not only resembles the Minaean dialect of the South Arabians, but appears to have been derived from it” (Agwan and Singh, 2006, p. 714).
     Descendants of these Lihyanites are in fact called Lahiyan today, a large clan of the Banu Hudhail b. Mudrika (also written Hudhal, Huthayl or Hatheyl) still dwelling not far from Mecca -  a kind of “tropical Arabs” with "shining", "black" skins according to Charles Doughty. “A nomad family met us (of Hatheyl or Koreysh) removing upward: they were slight bodies and blackish, a kind of tropical Arabs …” (Doughty, 1888, p. 528 and 535).
    

      The name of “Luhay” appears in ancient Sabaean inscriptions (Schiettecatte, 2012, p. 50). And for good reason  - the name is thought to be Lehi of the Bible. 

"The Lihyanites were originally named the Dedanites after the Grandson of Abraham; however, they changed their name to the People of Lihy around 550BC,  shortly after Lehi and his family would have been traveling down the Frankincense Trail.”
         Hudhayl was the uncle of Kinanah b. Khuzaimah according to Arab tradition.  Hudhayl’s brother is Khuzaimah bin Mudrika. In fact, Arab genealogists make Khuza’a -  ancestor of Luhay - and the Lakhmids, Ghassan and Ma’n all one people who left with others from Marib - their ancestors being the followers of a “Muzaikiyya” once subject to the Himyarite chiefs (in that time the A’ad or Amalekites/Midianites) there in Yemen and Marib (Meribah –Exodus 17). The tribes of Kinanah and Luhayan or Lahiyan who moved north capturing various sites from earlier owners are maternal descendants of  Azd and Himyarite women named Atika, Kaylah and Salma.
     The 9th century historian Asma'i summarized the settling of the Lakhmids of the Azd in the early Christian era.
        
‘They (the southern Arabs) did not enter a land without robbing its people of it. Khuza’a wrested Mecca from Jurhum; Aws and Khazraj wrested Medina from the Jews; the clan of Mundhir  seized Iraq from its people; the clan of Jafna  seized Syria from its people and ruled it; and the progeny of ‘Imran ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Amir [of al-As/zd] seized Oman from its people. Up till then all of these (southern tribes) had been in obedience to the kings of Himyar.’(Cotton, H., 2009, p. 388)  The parentheses here are the author's.
      This Asma’i, a historian from the tribe of Bahilah, likely knew that the Lakhmids and Khuza’a were  branches of Ghassan also known as “the house of Jafnah” (Jephuneh).  In fact the Jews of Medina and Khaibar were descendants of the Judham who were closely related to the Lakhm and Ma’n tribes of Azd (Gil, p. 19).
       Just previous to the birth of the Muslim Prophet in the 7th century, Banu Judham (or Gudham) were found north of the Hijaz in Palestine. Moshe Gil in his text, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, talks about the tribe of Judham belonging to the Lakhm tribe in the Islamic period there:
“Lakhm, as the Judham was to be found on the Palestinian border before the advent of Islam…The Banu Lakhm, whose major strength was centred in the region of the northern Euphrates, but who also had branches within Palestinian territory… According to tribal genealogical records, Lakhm were the brothers of Judham. From the Arab sources, we get the impression that these tribes, allies of the Byzantines on the eve of the Islamic conquests, roved about the Palestinian border lands and concentrated in Arabia, that is Provincia Arabia,…” (p. 19).
     And in a footnote 10 on the same page Gil adds,According to certain Arab sources, the Banu Nadir and the Banu Qurayza, the major Jewish tribes in Medina, Khaibar and Hijaz, were considered descendants of the Banu Judham” (Gil, p. 19, fn. 10). What’s more, the Banu Nadir and Qurayza of Hijaz were considered Kahanim or Jewish priests (Stillman, p. 9; Zeitlin, 2007, Chapter 5 ) As we see in the paragraph below the Banu Judham in turn were the “Midianites”.

"The principal tribe occupying the desert area south of Palestine was that of the Banu Judham. According to Arab sources, their land was called Madyan…Antoninus Placentinus of Piacenza, Italy) who visited the region in ca. 570, mentions Arabs whom he calls Midianites, encountered in Eilat en route to Sinai... According to him they claimed descent from Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, as it is also said, in Arab traditions of the Banu Judham, that they were the kinsfolk of Shu’ayb, whom some sources identify with Jethro. An important branch of this tribe were the Banu Wa’il… a certain part of which was inclined towards Judaism, as were other clans of the Banu Judham.” ( p. 18)

       Gil also notes that the Baghdad born al-Masudi (9th century) said of the Nadir (Jews of Medina) that they were offspring of  Judham, and that the Qurayza claimed priestly descent from Shu’aib, in particular prophet of Madyan (Midian) in particular who was of the Banu Judham (Azd) people (Gil, 2004, p. 11)  But as mentioned in Part I one Arab tradition makes Shu’ayb fourth in descent from Madyan. (Madyan was not just the name of a tribe, but a city near a town called Ma’an according to Tafsir of Ibn Kathir)
      Some sources in fact mention Judham as offspring of A’sar, or Ya’fur son of Madyan b. Ibrahim (Gil, 2004, p. 14, fn. 12), which is said to be the origin of Shu’ayb. Gil in fact speaks of many of the traditions connecting the Judham and Shu’ayb, but nevertheless manages, as do most scholars on ancient Israel, to avoid noting the most uniform or consistently expounded tradition concerning their origins. Shuayb and the Midianites, Judham, Jafnah (Jephuneh), Ghassan and related tribes are all people said to have come from the dispersal of the Azd confederation of the Yemen. The ancient Azd-related Judham, Ghassan, Jazila, Bahila and Lakhm and descendants in Hijaz and Africa and elsewhere obviously didn’t know that 3,000 years after their dam in Marib broke in Sana’a foreign peoples in the northwest and northeast would adopt their genealogies and make them into “Mesopotamians” stretching unto Turkey, before finally accusing true peoples of “Shem”, “Ham” and “Japhet” of adopting “the religion of Abraham”.
       The genealogy of Arab writers frequently makes mention of the tribe of  Banu Yashkur as a branch of the Azd tribe of Jazila ibn Lakhm.  Abd Rabbih writes, “In Jazila ibn Lakhm, there are many clans. Of them are Irash, Hujr, Yashkur Ghanim and Jadis a large clan”. As Salibi and others have pointed out, the name of Yashkur is actually the name Yissakhar or “Issachar” of the Bible – and not surprisingly, another name of one of the children of Israel (Jacob/Ya’qub was father of Issachar)
      MacMichael’s, History of the Arabs in the Sudan reads “The rule of Lakhm at Hira ended with the rise of Islam. At the conquest of Egypt the Yashkur section of the tribe established themselves upon the hill called after them…” (MacMichael,   pp. 140 – 141).   Another source says, “The Banū al-Hārith ibn-Yashkur ibn-Mubashshir of the Azd had an idol called Dū Sharā”  Hisham al-Kalbi. (Kitab al-Asnām). Healey ,2001, 106).
       In Part I we saw how Jadis, Al-Tawsim and Lakhim are connected in Arab genealogy, and that they are identified as ancestral Amalekites or al-Amluq, Letusim, and Lehumim. The Ghanm mentioned by abd Rabbih above appear to be the Ghanim of the Azd whose descendants the Ghanm or Ghunnam still live today in Wadi Liyyah (Leah) in the Asir Tihamah next to the Wadi Ta’Ashar.
      Now immediately after mentioning the clan of Yashkur ibn Jazilah ibn Lakhm and Jadis.  Ibn Abd Rabbih mentions something else. He notes that the clan of "Jadas" bin Jazila bin Lakhm were among those clans and one of their tribal members brought Joseph out of the well. If the clan of Yashkur is Issachar, son of Jacob and Leah, is this clan of “Jadas” not also that of "Gad" another of Jacob’s sons.
      The Torah/Bible says, “The sons of Zilpah, Leah's servant, were Gad and Asher” Genesis 35:26. It is not that much of a mental jump to see that Jadas is perhaps “Gad”. Gad's 6thson in Numbers 23:17 is incidentally named Arodh whose name is also mentioned above. At the same time the tribe of Asher and Gad may very possibly be the Ash'ar and their clan of "Judda" mentioned by Ibn Abd Rabih and others (Ibn Abd Rabbih, 2012, p. 295)..
         One Arab genealogy says Yashkur was the son of Rahm (or Ruhm) son of b. Basr b. Uqba, in other words a great grandson or descendant of a man named “Uqba”. The name Uqba like Jacob means "heel". This genealogy is thus likely reference to the Banu Uqba of the modern region of Midian (Madyan of northern Hijaz) mentioned by Orientalist historian Richard Francis Burton who writes in his book Land of Midian, that Al Kalkashendi  in the fifteenth century makes the Uqba tribe descendants of the Gudham (Judham) of the Kahtaniyyah (Qahtan) of the Yemen. (From the looks of things one should be wondering about the etymological roots of this interesting name of "Judham" as well. After all, This is after all a tribe of Yehud (Jews)of "Kahanim" (priestly) stock who were living in a land called Musra (Misra) and traditionally living amongst and descended from Mady'an (Midian) : )
      The name of Wady Madian was called Wadi Makn’a or Makkan (Magan), an area mentioned by the Assyrians by the 8th c. B.C. near a people and region otherwise called Melukha or Misra (Musri). The region of Makkan/Magan was also called Kush in Assyrian texts, and we have already identified Kush as derived from the name of Banu Gassan or Kassan. (See Part I and previous posts).
     In Land of Midian, Richard Burton also identified the Uqba with remnant Midianites. He wrote:

the Beni ‘Ukbah, as will be seen, once occupied the whole of Midian Proper, and extended through south Midian as far as the Wady Damah…According to our friend Furayj, the name means “Sons of the Heel” (‘Akab)…at first called “El-Musalimah,” they were lords of all the broad lands extending southward between Shamah to the Wady Damah, below the port of Ziba Al Hamdany stated Uqbah was the son of Moghrabi son of Heram (Burton, p. 260).
     This "Heram" is mentioned by the Arab authors as a tribe to which Ghatafan was related.  As ibn Abd Rabbih notes “in Haram ibn Judham are the Bani Ghatafan and Afsa…” (Abd Rabbih, 2012, p. 296).
      Thus, if we are to follow the Arab genealogists the Ma’an, Magan and Gassan, Bani Nadir, or Judham, Uqbah, and Liyhan, Khuza’a, Aus and Khazraj were in fact the earliest Israelites, or followers of Moses and the Midianites. The speculation that Minaeans adopted the priestly Levitical traditions from suspected Jews returning from Babylon is unnecessary with the realization of the Arabian tradition that the original Jewish priests of Midian WERE, IN FACT, the historical Minaeans. The Azd clans of Ma’an, Judham, Lakhmids, or “Midianites”, were brothers to the Banu Gassan (Jokshan) Aus (Uz), Khazraj (Jazar/Gezer), and other Yemenite populations.  From them thus came the “Israelite” clans and tribes of Banu Yashkur (Issachar), Banu Bahila (Bilha), Banu Ghani (Ghuni son of Bilha and Naphtali), Jasir (Jezer son of Bilha) and Banu Jazila bin Lakhm of Abd Rabbih (Jahzeel son of Bilha) who are Issachar, Bilha, Ghuni, son of Naphtali and Bilha, Jezer and Jazilah sons of Bilhah and Naphtali, Gad, and son Arodh.
     It was in fact the great grandson of this Jazila bin Lakhm who according to Ibn abd Rabbih “ brought out Yusuf ibn Ya’qub, God’s blessings and peace be upon him from the well” (Rabbih, 2012, p. 296). Or, as the first book of the Torah/Bible says of Jacob’s (Israel’s) son Joseph, “Now some Midianite merchants were passing, and they pulled Joseph out of the well.” (Genesis 37:28.)
       One can only conclude that all the above named were in fact at one time at least according to Arab tradition of the same African affiliated Arab people as now inhabitat parts of the Hadramaut, Central Arabia and Yemenite/Tihama region – the people who once dominated the peninsula. Not only were they the early Levitical peoples, but they were unquestionably the first fishermen who first brought the religion now known as Christianity to Syria, and then Islam to the Middle East. 
       Having an understanding of the Azd or Asir and Sabaean roots of these people i.e. the Canaanites and  Israelites we can thus better comprehend such assertions in the Hebrew texts that make the Meunim or Minaean  tribes of Hadramaut and Yemen a people living next door to such people as the  Moabites, Ammonites, Philistines and Israelites.  

 

Modern Huwayt'at of northern Arabia.  - Speaking of the Wadi Damah in Jordan Burton talks of, “its present Huwayti owners, the Sulaymiyyin, the Sulaymat, the Jerafin, …”  Volume 2 of the Land of Midian.


A Last Word on the Enigmatic Minaeans, i.e. MIDIANITES

       The origins of the Minaeans have baffled scholars due to the fact that they are known from texts and archaelogy as a people based in southern Arabia and yet are consistently mentioned in league with Canaanite peoples and their affiliates. We find the following passages about them in the Bible
      “And the Zidonians, and Amalek, and Meunim have oppressed you, and ye cry unto Me, and I delivered you from their hands  Judges 10 :12. In the Septuagint version of the Bible, the Meunites or Maonites are simply referred to as “the Midianites”. Confirming again that kinship of the Ma’an with Lakhm and Gassan who we have already identified in Part I as the “Ethiopic” peoples or Lehumim and Jokshan brothers of  of Midian and Asshur, dwellers of Asir Tihama and Marib in the Yemen.
       In the biblical book  2 Chronicles 20:1 "After this the Moabites and Ammonites, and with them some of the Meunites, came against Jehoshaphat for battle."
           In Chronicles 4 a man named Naaman is an Israelite king of Aram. He is said to be of the family of Benjamin. He is said to be the son Benjamin or of Benjamin’s son Bela, and head of the family of the Naamites or Naamathites and friend of Job of the land of Uz. The Septuagint in Job 2:11 renders a Zophar the Naamathite, as “king of the Minaeans”.
       At the time of Uzziah king of Judah, the Minaeans are in fact alliance with the Philistines. One of the places of these Me’unim, Gur Baal, is named right after the Gerar of the Philistines which Salibi identified with Qararah in Yemen. They are the people destroyed by the posterity of Simeon 1 Chronicles 4:41: These were the names of some of the leaders of Simeon’s wealthy clans. Their families grew, and they traveled to the region of Gerar, during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah, these leaders of Simeon invaded the region and completely destroyed the homes of the descendants of Ham and of the Meunites. No trace of them remains today.”
        Simcox writes that the Minaeans are the people of Gur Baal next to the Philistines saying “the Mehunims also read Meunites, are bracketed with the Arabians of Gur baal (Petra?) and the Philistines of Uzziah.” (Gur Baal of the Minaeans as we have shown was not in modern Petra).  Meanwhile the Targum uses the word “Edomites” for the Me’unites in 2 Chronicles 20:1. Sometimes especially in the Septuagint version of the Bible the name Meunim is replaced by Ammonite and in fact at other times simply as the people of Ham. (Simcox, 1897, p. 499) Thus we know they lived near the Philistines and other “children of Ham”.
      Now in Arabian tradition the famous king named Numan of the Yemenite region of Zuphar is said to have lived before the time of Lokman a descendant of Ad who in legend is associated with the dam at Ma’rib, sometimes said to be its builder. (In Part I of this blog Lokman was identified as Bil’am or Balaam). Al -Numan al’Ma’afir is by tradition the son of Yafar or Yafir son of Sacsac son of Wathil or Wa’il son of Himyar, a chief of the Sabaeans who lived near the time of the Himyarite (Sabaean) chief Dhu’l Ra’ish or Riyash (Crosby, p. 29; Miles, p. 7)
      Legend has it that the town of Zuphar (from Dthawi or Dhu Far) was founded by Shammar Harish sometimes called “son of Alamluk” (or son of the Amalekite), a descendant of Yafar who lived as we have seen a few thousands of years ago. Al Maqadisi or Muqadassi of the 10th century lists the names of the districts Al Umluk (Amluk), Mazra  and Dhu Makharim next to each other in the Yemen (Collins,  2001, p. 79).
     The matter of the Meunim or “Maonites” (who we have seen were Lakhm and Judham) settled in Judaea in the period of the exile has proven disconcerting since the south Arabian Minaeans would have had to have been in the region of Jordan and Syria in the time of early Israel. Scholars admit the Meunites or Maonites of1 Chronicles 4:41 and 20:7 are identical with the south Arabian Minaeans”, but then question where the Gur Baal mentioned was (Retso, pp. 141-142). Interestingly according to Burckhardt in Hijaz - “The Bedouins give the name of El Ghor, or the low-land, to the whole province westward of the mountains from Mekka up to Beder and Yembo” (Burkhardt 1826/2009, p. xiii). But even more interestingly up until the 11th century the land of Hadramaut in its entirety was supposedly still in the hands of Banu’ Ma’n, and a small group of them still live in a town called Al-Ghur in the Rizah region of Yemen.
     The Harper Collins Bible Dictionary summarizes the challenge posed to Biblical specialists.

“The Meunim are referred to in 1 Chron. 4:41; Ezra 2:50; and Neh. 7:52.  The same people (apparently) are referred to as the Meunites in 2 Chron. 20:1; 26:7. Both Meunim and Meunites are sometimes identified with the people known elsewhere in history as Minaeans, who occupied the region of Main in modern North Yemen….The Meunim of 1 Chron. 4:41 and the Meunites of 2 Chron. 26:7 are explicityly identified as Minaeans in the Greek LXX translation of the Bible, as are the Ammonites in 2 Chron. 20:1 and 26:8 and Zophar in Job 2:11. Such identifications are problematic, however, and may have resulted from the substitution of a more familiar name for a less familiar one. In Ezra 2:50 (cf. Neh. 7:52), the Meunim are temple servants.”

     Edith Simcox speculated that the writers of the Bible confused the time period in which the Minaeans lived noting that there were no mention of them in Assyrian inscriptions. She wrote in her Primitive Civilizations,
     “Another negative argument is supplied by the silence of the genealogical table in the tenth chapter of Genesis, where Saba is, and Ma’in is not mentioned, so that the latter was presumably not known in Palestine, either when the passage was first written or when the book was last edited.”
       But the truth is neither Sabaeans nor Minaeans are mentioned by the Assyrians in Palestine as these Meunim were known historically by names like Magan and Kush in Assyrian times. They are Khaza’a or Khuza’a who had branched off with Aus and Khazras from the Azd confederation, like Ghassan (Jokshan/Kushan), like Lakhm (Lehummim) and Judham.  They are thus probably mentioned under the name Hazu off southwest Arabia which has been identified  as the biblical Hazo, brother of Uz (Ephal, 1982, p. 133; Goodspeed, 1902, p. 295) and listed in Assyrian inscriptions with Dedan during the time of the Assyrian ruler, Esarhaddon. Salibi identifies the locale with Hazati of the Amarna letters and the Hazaataa of the topographical list of Sargon II of Assyria (Salibi, p. 72 and 74).
     Another brother of Uz and Hazo is Bethuel or Betawil in Arabic who bore Tebah, Gaham and Tahash or Thahash and Maacah through a concubine. "Dahash" is another Dawasir tribe still living in the Nejd (Lorimer, p. 394). 
      Still another brother of Uz (Aus) and Hazo (Khaza'a) is Kemuel. One finds Tabari referencing the Kemuel or Qamwal of Genesis as one who “lived in the time of Suleiman ibn Dawud” (King Solomon, son of David). And a closer look at traditional Islamic genealogies of the Prophet’s lineage shows that he is in fact Qama’ah mentioned with Tabikhah as “full-blooded” brothers of  Kinanah’s grandfather of Mudrikah.
     Tabari wrote of Nadr bin Kinana that al-Nadr’s mother is said to be from the tribe of Tabikha. In the same book he mentions the Hebraic genealogy stating that the name of Tahba or Tabakh was Tahab (for the biblical Tebah above) and he writes Gaham or Jaham as Jahma. Tabikha and Banu Juhma or Jumah are two historically documented clans of the Kinana (of Hijaz and Asir) who are clans among the Dawasir as much as they are a part of the Qays Ailan.
     Tabari states that Maacah was Ma’jalah in Arabic and the latter is today the name of a village in Yemen. He says that Tahab b. Jahma was the son of “Mahsha” whom he says was "Tahash".  But these names are too similar or even identical to the names of the Dawasir and sub-tribes of Kinanah, Qama’ah, Juhma and Dahash to be coincidental. Even today the Dawasir in the Wadi Dawasir region of Nejd live next to the people known both as Tebah and 'Uteibah" though they are also traditional enemies (Kupershoek, p. 59) Ibn Abd Rabbih links them closely to the Jodham saying "of the Beni Hishm ibn Jodham are the Benu Utayb ibn 'Aslam ibn Khalid ibn Shanu'a ibn Tadil ibn Hishm ibn Judham" (Rabbih, p. 296).  (Al-Qahma’a is apparently also a name of a tribe among the modern Mahra another people said to have branched off from Hamdan of Kahlan at a very early period and fled to the east.) 
     Uteibah or Tebah are considered part of the Hawazin from Qays Ailan in most of the genealogies. James Hamilton wrote about them a century ago, “they wore their hair in long curly plaits” and their skin was “a dark brown”(Bentley, R., 1857, pp. 129-130). 

Published 6/29/2013  6:29 PM    

BIBLIOGRAPHY

See Part 3 of CANAANITES IN THEIR LANDS for the bibliography


Below:  Some of the Afro-Arabian tribes originally from southwest Arabia designated as "Joseph's Posterity" in the Book of Jasher (Yasher) as they are known  historically and today.  

Leah (Liyyah), Reuben (Rubanniyya), Levi (Lu'ayy), Issachar (Ushayqir/Ishkaran), Rachel (Rakhala Rahil), Benjamin (Yam), Zilpah (Zilfi), Gad (Judda),  Haggi (Hijji), Asher (Ash'ar), Bilha (Bahila), Zohar (Zahran), Gershom (Jursham), Perez (Faras or Farasan), Elon (Ailan), Chamul (Hawamil), Sered (Surayda), Dan (Dhanawiyyen?),  Jahzeel ( Jazila), Guni (Ghani/Ghunay), Jezer (Jasir), Shellam (Salim), Zephon (Zaffan), Serach (Shuraykha/Shuraikah),  Bela (Bela/ Beli), Naaman (Numan), Rosh (Ra'ish)


(Please feel free to make copies in case anything disappears. There are many people that publish, or copy and paste the information from this blog onto other sites. However, as a person with multicultural interests and background, I would appreciate if the above text is not copied and pasted without quotes under pseudonyms, or anonymously, to other web-sites in combination with trading curses or using abusive words with other individuals, or else, verbally insulting, denigrating, or attempting to dehumanize various ethnic groups, i.e., "white people", Europeans, "Arabs", " Jews", "Turks", Israelis, etc.  Please do not modify or add to text directly copied or taken from this site. Thanks in advance for your consideration. : )



25 comments:

Anonymous said...

the canaanite Phoenicians are dravidians with straight hair Kan Ani a branch of them and the other branch is the sumerians !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Anonymous said...

People have mixed things up very much and gave credit to others which is not theirs ! there are 3 different Nimrods and proof is from Prophets and Patriachs 1) Nimrod bin Arfakhshaad whose dwelling place was al hijr 2) Nimrod bin cush bin CANAAN bin Ham and 3) Nimrod bin KUSH

Anonymous said...

Amalek are the Imliq! they mixed with the hamitic canaanites the phoenicians(another branch of the straight haired dark dravidians and the other canaanite people the imliq mixed with were like pure aboriginal people of North america! and the Imliq mixed with the Adites making them from Ad when Ad perished Prophet HUD AS family those who believed migrated with The Thamud the Thamud are from HUD because a mix making them adites the second ad and extension of the Adites and Thamud were probably around the time of Assyrians because it is said from Prophets and Patriarchs when the thamud perished the remaining sons of Aram were known as Arman they are the Nabateans another name for Nabateans was arameans the real arameans!!! the language and culture of Nabateans was Aramaic! and Arameans mixed with the Assyrians when the thamud perished Prophet Saalih AS family and those who believed remained also it is said the Imliq are the successors of the Thamud a mix making them adites also since thamud are from Hud AS they did believe in Allaah before they went astray so how much mixing they did with other nations during that time it makes the assyrians adite

Anonymous said...

haha people writing but dont know what they talk Aus is AWS son of Aram son of Shem Aram had AWS who had Ad and Ubayl and Aram had Gether(athir) who had Thamud and Jadis Hud is from people of Ad bin Aws and Thumud is from HUD a mix making them people of AWS then Thamud and Imliq mixed making the Imliq people of Thamud who are people of AD bin AWS the Assyrians a mix Akkadian and Sumerian(dravidian canaanite) the Amorites are also known as Imliq and Imliq mixed a canaanite people like pure aboriginal people of north america some even say the so you cannot leave out people of Ashur also remember Nimrod bin Arfakhshaad dwelling place was al hijr!!!!!!!!the chaldeans did not originate from east they came from west the arabian peninsula all a mix and didnt the in wikipedia it says Though conquerors, the Chaldeans were rapidly and completely assimilated into the dominant Semitic Akkadian Babylonian culture, as the Amorites before them had been, and after the fall of Babylon in 539 BC the term "Chaldean" was no longer used to describe a specific ethnicity, but rather a socio-economic class.

Dana W. Reynolds said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Dana W. Reynolds said...

Thank you for your comments. I have published them for people to see what kind of rhetoric is popular with laymen around the world with regard to the ancient Afro-Arabian peoples. However there is nothing but your unreferenced statements here to respond to, and my blog is not about the popular opinions and pop myths of modern day folk, nor political or religious nationalists. If you are interested in having your comments published again, then make sure you have something that either confirms or disproves what has been posted in this blog backed up by scholarly sources. From what I am seeing you are not an authority on either Islam, Arabia, Arab genealogy or ethnicity and have not read other parts of the blog, so there is nothing here that I can follow, or for anyone in the general public to feel obligated to respond to. In other words it is taking up space.

Best wishes and good luck for the next time. : )

Anonymous said...

what if one has an arab ancestry miss Dana are you an arab if not u are no authority on our people no offense also the Prophet Muhammad PBH was fair in color a wheat color oval face a curve to his nose bridge which was not too big not too small upside down v eyebrows v hairline and black wavy hair he was same as Prophet Abraham PBH.

Anonymous said...

In a hadith reported in Sahih Muslim, Muhammad mentions that 'Isa (Jesus) resembles Urwah ibn Mas'ud.[2] closest in appearance. He was very white with reddish cheeks,tall with dark black hair and eyes. wikipedia but u can find this else where
this is accurate I have seen the Prophet 11 times PBH Prophet Jesus 1 time and Prophet Abraham 1 time PBH this is a accurate description of Prophet Isa Jesus PBH accurate I saw him as Fair colored and black hair wet combed back afro asiatics are different one cannot be mixed with white or something else then claim they are afro asiatic but their ancestry comes from west,central and south africa

Dana W. Reynolds said...

Hi Anonymous - and thanks for your comment. No, I am not Arab, and this blog is of course not about modern day "Arabs", but addresses the ancient Arabian peoples and the indigenous Afro-Asiatics first known as Arabs, Berbers, Egyptians, etc. It also is certainly not about arguing about what the color of the Prophet of Islam (pbuh) was. But, as you perhaps WELL KNOW, or maybe you don't - the Prophet is described variously depending on the culture of the commentarist, - as Issa (Jesus) was. Some commentaries describe him as "akhdar" or "asmar" the name used for dark brown near black Africans and Arabians, not like a medieval Persian or Syrian, i.e. someone with "black wavy hair", and "fair" complexion. As translations of Anas b. Malik say, "His hair was neither curly nor completely straight. He had a dark brown (asmar) complexion and when he walked he leant forward ..." The Arabs considered an appearance white with lank wavy hair a signature of slave origin. Arab grammarians and historians had this to say - “It is when they say ‘so-and-so is red’ that they mean fair skin. And the Arabs attribute fair skin to the slaves.” (Ibn Manzur, Lisaan al-Arab, 155, 14th century).Thus, al-Dhahabi a fourth century SYRIAN wrote in his text, Siyar al Nubala'a, that fair skin was rare among Hijazis and that "This is the meaning of the saying, … ‘a red (fair-skinned) man as if he is one of the slaves". Did Dhahabi and others say this, OR NOT?! That is for you to explain.

The Arab had kinky hair like the Africans, according to this author – hair that is “neither curly nor straight”. The earliest Persian descriptions of the Arabs claim similarly.They wore their hair in cornrows or braids and tunics that came only to the waist with cowrie shells as jewelry.


The term of "black buckwheat" is sometimes used for these darker-skinned Arabs if that is what you are referring to. However, I doubt whether the Prophet, PBH, was any different than the members of his clans and tribe of Hashem, Qureish and Kina' nah HIS PEOPLE in the Hijaz described then AND NOW mostly near black in color i.e. black buckwheat. This is the indigenous Arab of Hijaz, Tihama and in fact, the whole of Arabia until several hundred years ago. I don't think there is any evidence the Prophet was partly slave in origin - is there?

In the 7th century, the Maddhij apparently felt that was an "inconceivable" thing to think of an Arab with fair skin? This was pointed out by Ibn Abd Rabbih an 11th century persian of Cordoba citting one of their judges qadis. Do you know who the Maddhij were? There of course TODAY, unlike previously, are many fair-skinned Madhij. WHAT DOES THAT MEAN? Les us put two and two together.

Feel free to post it here if there is proof that Muhammad was a descendant of slaves. Also, since you are concerned with the color of the early Arabs, please post the name of YOUR tribe so we can discover AND POST how the people YOU ARE CLAIMING were YOUR PEOPLE were in early centuries described as well.: )

Finally it would be good for you to remember what Rumi from Central Asia said in the 9th century, "You insulted (the family of the Prophet) because of their blackness (bi-l-sawad), while there are still deep black, pure-blooded Arabs. However, you are fair – the Rum (Greco-Roman Byzantines) have embellished your faces with their color. The color of the family of Hashim was not a bodily defect. "From poem of Abu al-Hasan Ali b. al-Abbas b. Jurayj (Ibn al-Rumi) (d. 896), apud Abu al-Faraj al-Isbahani, Maqatil al-taalibiyyin, 759.

Dana W. Reynolds said...

On the question of Issa as well there are different descriptions,. At that era he could have, I agree, he could have looked like anything from a northern Albanian to a pure Arab i.e. a black man. The earliest depictions in Europe interestingly, however, are of a dark skinned man.

Brown Lawgirl said...

Dana I fond all your articles interesting, well written and well referenced. However, as an historian myself, I have found Arab Muslim sources to be the most corrupt of all. I would NEVER waste my time wading through their history. their Qur'an or the work of their scholars for one simple reason. They are the children of those patriarchs who were rejected from the most precious promises, and in revenge, they have appropriated the lands and wealth of those who did receive the promises, and I make no reference to the Jews. The Arabs have hidden their true heritage, because among them are the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Amalekites, Hagarenes, Canaanites, and Gebalites to name a few. Rather than contend with them, I am observing the fulfillment of prophecy that was spoken against them for their possession of the houses of God, and one only needs to watch the news to witness it. All will be exposed soon enough. The works of Egyptology and the books of westerns scholars will ultimately be ridiculed. Wont be long now.

Dana W. Reynolds said...

Hi there, Lawgirl - well, I am glad that you found the articles well-written because actually they are not well-edited, yet. But just so we are not confusing matters, I guess I should start right off in saying I believe you probably haven't read through my entire blog and probably haven't been reading " Muslim sources" by Arabs, but by individuals from Syria, Turkey, Persia (Central Asia), and eastern Europe whose ancestors had their own historical legacy and views on life. Most Muslim sources were written by people who only spoke the language of the Arabs, but were not Arabs themselves. And you are correct that there were great distortions - though probably no more than in any other corpus of historical works.

This blog is about AfroAsiatics, and anyone of African descent or concerned with the birth of Western religious origins should be concerned with untangling the historical narratives surrounding such peoples. If you have read through the blog you would have come to believe the people that you presume have appropriated "the lands and wealth of those who did receive the promises" were in fact not historically children of "the Canaanites", or in fact, any other people of Genesis. Early Arab people i.e. the indigenes of Arabia, had long been absorbed into other non-Afro-Asiatic peoples and/or been dispersed to other regions like Africa and other places (but mainly Africa) as both Israelites and Ishmaelites (if we want to go there.: )
I am assuming you haven't read part 3 and especially the King Solomon's Miner's parts of the blog, which specifically discuss the direct link of ancient Arabia, the Israelites and Judaeans, but maybe you should.
If you have read the entire blog up to part 3 of Canaanites in the Land you will have seen that the true historical Canaanites are still claiming their heritage and have been doing so for thousands of years, but have very little land or wealth. Many of these people, theTuareg ,the Zaghawa/Songhai, Kanembu, peoples of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Chad, and southern southern Maghreb aside from carrying their ancient Old Testament names still have traditions of their descent from the ancestral land of Kanauwna or Cana'an i.e. the Tihama of southwest Arabia, known then as the Yaman.
If you have read through the rest of the blog you have also seen that the majority of the names of the tribes of Edomites (Idumah), Amalekites (Amluk), Midianites (Ma'adyan), Ihaggaren, etc are all extant today belonging to AfroAsiatic peoples spread between modern west Africa and Arabia. And if you have read the later parts of the blog - King Solomon's miners, you will see from these children of Shem, Ham and Japhet issued the "tribes of Israel" including the Judaeans, children of Khaibar or Hebrews. You will also see that all of these are also the Arabian tribes mentioned throughout the Muslim sources or texts.

Anonymous said...

The moment you mention Wikipedia, your words lose all credibility.

Anonymous said...

Al Jahiz the 7th century author of "The Book of the Glory of Blacks over Whites" (Arabs), writes:The ten sons of Abd el Mottalib the grandfather of Mohammed were all black and strong. ...if the Arabs are ruddy,(red/mingled) then they belong to the Byzantines (Rum), Slaves (Saqaliba), Persians and Khurasanis.
-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) ( c. 781 – 869).

Anonymous said...

According to Arab historians such as Ibn Khaldun and Ali ibn al-Athir, Amalek is a name given to the Amorites and the Canaanites. on 02/17/13 i dreamt all the imliq are from Ad

((((((According to Arab historians such as Ibn Khaldun and Ali ibn al-Athir, Amalek is a name given to the Amorites and the Canaaniteson 02/17/13 i dreamt all the imliq are from Ad)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))The Muslim historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (c. 915) recounts a tradition that the wife of Lud was named Shakbah, daughter of Japheth, and that she bore him "Faris, Jurjan, and the races of Faris". He further asserts that Lud was the progenitor of not only the Persians, but also the Amalekites and Canaanites, and all the peoples of the East, Oman, Hejaz, Syria, Egypt, and Bahrein.wikipedia (( as I said the Imliq are Amorites and they mixed with Hamitic Canaanites)

.on 08/15/12 I dreamt there is no such thing as the amalekites the Imliq are from the Ad

I have also dreamt of the people of Lud in saudia arabia and i saw nur(light)... On 23/11/11 i dreamt the amlaq(imliq) were the giant people

Dana W. Reynolds said...

Anonymous - I have already written on this site about the tall near black Afro-Arabian people of the ancient and modern world still called Ammurat/Murad (Amorites), A'd, Azd, Wudin (Lud or el Aud) and Amlik, Djasim (Tasm) and Gurgan, etc. In case you haven't noticed, that is basically what a large part of the blogspot is about. I am glad you have dreamed that the "Amorites", "Canaanites" and "Adites" were all one, because they most certainly ARE, and did at one time occupy a large part of the East and Syria. Maybe one day soon you will dream about the fact that Ham Shem and Japhet, Soma, Sima and Dyaus Pita, in your country were one as well . : )

BTW - why do you keep telling us about your dreams. Do you think you are the only one who dreams? I already told you that in order for someone to take you seriously you need to provide some evidence. Dreaming is not evidence as for one thing no one can get in your head and see what you are dreaming. Get it?

Paul - Stockholm, Sweden said...

Dear Dana,

I Think your blogg "Afro-Asiatica" is very impressing.

I am perplexed that you write:

"But, as a result of the misplaced territories of the biblical Israelites and Mizraim and/or Misra in western tradition, many modern archaeologists and other scholars rightfully doubt the historicity of the Torah".

I would have thougt that Reading Kamal Salibi one might Believe in the historicity of the Torah? (Because he places most of the actions in Arabia.

Keep up the good work!

Regards,
Paul Hamacher, Stockholm

Dana W. Reynolds said...

Hi Paul - thanks very much for visiting. I must ask though if you know of many academics that have read Dr. Salibi. I think they haven't, and those who have don't take him seriously. I am in touch with certain scholars in the United States that are inclined to think that he was on the right track in claiming an southwest Arabian or Asir homeland for Israel of the Old Testament. But, on the other hand, they don't take some of his linguistic associations seriously. I am speaking strictly of people I am in contact with at least here in the United States though.
I am not sure if scholars in the European countries are more inclined to believe in Salibi's writings. There may be, but there are certainly not a whole lot of people here in the US or in Israel who would like to take his work seriously.
I thank you though for your confidence.

T Hammons said...

The Israelites were and still are black, even though some have mixed with other nations. But many of the ancient Israelites migrated to different parts of Africa. I also believe many Israelites had also migrated to the Americas in ancient times. A lot of Hebrew artifacts have been found in America.

-The noted Jewish historian, Josephus from his book The Great Roman-Jewish War: 66-70, where he writes about this Jewish dispersion and captivity. "General Vaspasian and his son Caesar Titus fought against the Jews. Millions of Jews fled into Africa, among other places, fleeing from Roman persecution and starvation during the siege."

-Historian Wilson Armistead states quite plainly: “The descendants of a colony of Jews, originally from Judea, settled on the coast of Africa, are black.” (A Tribute for the Negro: Being a Vindication of the Moral, Intellectual, and Religious Capabilities of the Colored Portion of Mankind; with Particular Reference to the African Race by Wilson Armistead. Manchester and London: W. Irwin, 1848, pg. 66)

-Sir Godfrey Higgins quoted Mr. Maurice: “The Yadavas were the most venerable emigrants from India; they were the blameless and pious Ethiopians, whom Homer mentions, and calls the remotest of mankind. Part of them, say the old Hindu writers, remained in this country; and hence we read of two Ethiopian nations, the Western and the Oriental. Some of them lived far to the East; and they are the Yadavas who stayed in India, while others resided far to the West. The fact of part of the tribe yet remaining in existence is one of the pieces of circumstances of this kind that I ground my system. They surpass all written evidence, for they cannot have been forged. This emigrating tribe of Yadu or Yuda, we shall find of the first importance, for they were no other than the Jews.” (Anacalypsis, Vol. I. by Sir Godfrey Higgins, London:1836, reprinted. Brooklyn:A&B Books Publishers, 1992, pg. 392)

Abraham came from Ur of the Chaldees (Gen. 11, 31) Godfrey Higgins, a careful and reliable English antiquary says, “The Chaldees were originally Negroes.” (Anacalypsis, Vol. II, p. 364. New York, 1927)

-The late president of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser, stated on television, saying, "You (Jews) will never be able to live here in peace, because you left here black but came back white. We cannot except you!"

-A Roman historian named Tacitus who lived about C.E. 90 said, "Many assert that the Hebrews are an RACE OF ETHIOPIAN ORIGINS."(Book V, Chap. 2)

-What serves to confirm the ethnic reality depicted
by Judah's Assyrian conquerers is the discovery of
an ossuary at Lachish dated to the time of the
conquest. It is the largest sample of Israelite
remains and comes from a city that was populated
the previous 500 years by Israelites. 695 crania of
all ages and both genders were uncovered.

D. L. Risdon in BIOMETRIKA 1939 31:99-166 reports
the Lachish cranial series has its closest resemblance
to the 4th dynasty series from Deshasheh and Medum
in Lower Egypt and the 18th dynasty samples from Thebes
and Abydos in Upper Egypt. Cranial samples from other
Palestinian sites (Gezer, Megiddo) agree with the Lachish
cranium. Thus we have a clear African "racial" continuum
in the Hebrews and Egyptians.

-Josephus, a Judahite writer of the 1st century CE,
agrees with the Egyptian Cherilus' description of
Israelites conscripted into Xerxes' army as having
the visage of "smoke hardened horseheads." This
refered to their high cheekbones and prominent jaws,
as seen in the conquest of Lachish depictions, and
their smokey "soot" dark complexions (Against Apion I.22).


http://www.scribd.com/doc/254158722/The-Israelites-of-Africa-A-Means-to-Preserve-the-Oral-Traditions

http://www.examiner.com/article/dna-scientists-claim-that-cherokees-are-from-the-middle-east

Dana W. Reynolds said...

Mr. Hammons - you are jumping around to different works that have been done over the years that state blacks were here and there. I'm glad you are reading up on some of these works. This blog however is not really for laymen to come and post what makes them feel good. If you have anything to post that can add to the discussion that would be of benefit. But what you post has not really added to this blog since you have basically repeated what I have said in it but without the scientific evidence. : ) Most of what you have said AND QUOTED about Israelites is ALREADY ON THIS BLOG blog especially in the articles KING SOLOMON'S MINERS Parts I II and III, where I show WITH THE OBJECTIVE PROOF who the Israelites were and are. I also showed how both Israelites and Judaeans remain under their ancient names if that matters to anyone. Please read through the blog first before sending more info, otherwise there is no guarantee that I will be able to post it. I will probably just delete it like I did your and other submissions. There is no use of me or anyone posting things that others have posted many times over without some proof of what is said. THere are Brits who also conceive they are Israelites and quote things here and there as well.

BTW if the original Cherokee were Hebrew they were a far cry from most of today's mostly European-descended Cherokee which is possibly why the dna hasn't turned up VERY LITTLE if any Hebrew i.e. Phoenician or Yemenite genes. The Cherokee of South Carolina were described as a tall handsome with a very dark and copper brown complexion by English colonials.

T Hammons said...

What are your thoughtson on the work of DR. Shomarka Omar Yahya Keita?

Dana W. Reynolds said...

Shomarka is a reputable and trustworthy researcher on the tools used to categorize genetic populations.

I did mention to him in a personal conversation over 20 years ago that I saw a problem with categorizing certain nasal traits "negroid" and "caucasoid" as his mentors were doing. He might have changed his tune by now though - not sure.

Paul - Stockholm, Sweden said...

>> Hi Paul - thanks very much for visiting. I must ask though
>> if you know of many academics that have read Dr. Salibi.
>>December 26, 2014 at 9:45 PM

Hi Dana,
I think many academics have read Dr. Salibi and
a) they will probably not go against him,
b) they dare not mention his work,
c) Dr. Salibi made clear that many of his own suggestion were speculations,
so we do not need believe everything.

I have found Robert Feather very interesting,
briefly he suggest that the Jewish faith started in Egypt and was brougt out by Moses
eastwards. I have found also that BAS (www.biblicalarchaeology.org) have this kind of
diskussions. See also about the Exodus www.patternsofevidence.com.

King Salomon was king in Egypt, that could explain many things, including the temple of Salomon was located in Egypt!?

Dana W. Reynolds said...

Hi Paul - the views in this blog about the Exodus mentioned in the Old Testament are not really based on Salibi's ideas. I first started to look into this when I read Velikovsky's notes on the "Muzaikiyya" of Arab writers. I don't think Salibi was really much familiar with Arabian lore about their Exodus from Mar'ib as I don't remember him even mentioning it. In any case you may have noted if you have read through other parts of the blog, especially King Solomon's Miners as well as the latest posting, that there is every reason to believe the writers of the Old Testament were Arabians and talking about a Kush, Misrah and Kanaan of the Yaman not Syria nor even Africa. In fact, it is clear that modern specialists as well as certain early historians wrongly interpreted Misrah as being the modern United Arab Republic, when there is more than one Misra or Mizrah in Arabia.
This is not to say there was not some early connection of rulers in Egypt with those of the Asir and Yemen where was probably the region of Punt/Puanit or at least a part of it. Even Salibi suggested that. And as I have said the people who speak the ancient languages of the region do have traditions of having come from Africa but judging from archaeological record this would have been long before the time of the Exodus.
Archaeologically none of the authors you mentioned have been able to correlate the Exodus with an escape from Egypt. And lastly, according to Arabian tradition Feruan "the Amalekite" drowned at Qaran in Arabia. : )

Dana W. Reynolds said...

Please note in this comments section I meant to say that Dhahabi was a 14th century Syrian, not fourth.