Sunday, June 30, 2013

CANAANITES IN THEIR LANDS Part 2 Afro-Asiatic Israel and Aram

CANAANITES IN THEIR LANDS Part II     Afro-Asiatic Israel and Aram by Dana W. Reynolds

A young man walks in Saudi Arabia's  Rub al-Khali (meaning "Empty Quarter") Desert  in the south central area of the Arabian peninsula.

Pictured here are said to be some early "Amurru" at a town called Mari. Traditionally known as  "Ad", "Aram" and "Akkad" the earliest Amurru moved early on from southern Arabia (Al-Yaman) to Syria and Mesopotamia where the Akkadian language developed and where they absorbed non-Afro-Asiatic, Syrian people. Since the chronology of the ancient Near East is largely dependent on the ancient Egyptian one (believed by some archaeologists to be greatly distorted), archaeologists are in truth not certain as to what period this painting and the Akkadian civilization belongs.: ) 
Modern man of the Sana'a in the Yemen - original home of the semilegendary Muzaikiyya of Marib (Meribah - Exodus 17; Numbers 20:14; Psalm 81:7) and "the Rephaim Amorites" of Rephidim. Here the original Israelites once fought against their Amorite brethren. And "...Moses struck the rock as was told and water gushed out as the elders of Israel looked on. And he named the place Massah and Meribah because the children of Israel quarreled with Moses and tested the Lord saying 'is the Lord among us or not'". Exodus 17:6-7).

The tribe of Ad was descended from Ad, the son of Aws, the son of Aram, the son of Sem the son of Noah  who after the confusion of tongues, settled in al Ahkaf or the winding sands in the province of Hadramaut, where his posterity greatly multiplied. Their first king was Shedad the son of Ad of whom the eastern writers  deliver many fabulous things…” From The Koran, translation and notes by George Sale,” 1890, p.5.

 Joseph and Asenath, and the Solymi Connection

      Here might be good point to speak of the story of Yusuf or Joseph, son of Jacob mentioned by Ibn Abd Rabbih. This Yusuf or Asaf as he is also named in Arabic tales was in the biblical story a man who lived in Canaan, where his grandfather was from. His brothers had thrown him into a well and then some “Midianites”, whom the Bible also calls “Ismailites” or children of Ishmael, came along and lifted him from the well and then sold him to an important person  of  a place called “Mitzraim”.  As Salibi points out this Mizraim or Mitzraim has been misinterpreted in western translations of the Bible as the modern Egypt, when in fact it was likely an area in southwest Arabia either the Misramah of the Asir region or some where else where the Azd tribes of Kahlan lived and lived.  
        Asaf was associated with “Asiyyah” (meaning wild antelope or cow) who in Arab tradition is called “the Israelite woman”. She is sometimes called Asiyya bayt Muzahhim. But her traditional lineage or genealogy appears to makes her a descendant of the Sulaim bin Mansur, a tribe of Qays Ailan ultimately from the Azd in Hijaz and Central Arabia.  And it was from Banu Sulaim the son of  Mansur that descended “Ra’l, Zakwan, ‘Asiyyah ibn Khuyfaf ibn Imri’ Al- Qais ibn Buhthah ibn Sulaim and Za’b ibn Malik ibn Khufaf ibn Imri’ Al- Qais ibn Buhthah ibn Sulaim”  (Abdul Wahab, 2006; Phillips, R., p. 65).
       Thus, the 11th c. Cordoban Ibn Abd Rabbih wrote that the Banu Sulaym: were represented by “Dhakwan, Bahz and Buhtha” ( Abd Rabbih, p. 261) (Dhakwan is also written Zakwan or Zaakwan.)
       This posting is to show that the Sulaym group just mentioned are often connected with names that are Arabized forms of the individuals surrounding the biblical Joseph and his son Jacob in ancient Hebraic stories. They include aside from Assiyya or Asenath, Potiphar – her father, Joseph's mother Rachel (Jacob’s favorite wife), and brother Benjamin, Bahila (Rachel’s handmaid who then marries Jacob), the sons of Bahila, or Ghuni, Sallum, Suham, Jahzi’el, and Jeser or Jezer, the sons of Zilpah daughter of Laban -Gad and Asher, and Yissachar, the son of Leah (who was Jacob’s wife and Rachel’s younger sister), Manasseh, Ephraim, Levi, Gershon, Arodi son of Gad, Naaman, Rosh and Elon to name but a few of Jacob's "posterity". In other words, "the Israelites".
        But, in addition, closely connected with Sulaym are found names of a few Edomite or Horite tribes or “dukes” mentioned in Genesis 36 – including Zubyan or Zibeon and son Aja/Aia or Ashja’a, Zakwan or Zaavan and Yaakan or Akan, sons of Ezer (Assir). In the Bible they are said to be Hivite and Horite chiefs, children of Canaan and Edom.
       Middle Eastern folk traditions or mythos surrrounding Moses and Josephus make these people mostly "Amalekite" rulers of a locale called “Misra”. (Josephus in fact divided the peoples of Edom into Amalekites and "Gebalites".) (Hebbe, p. 401).
        Al-Tabari and Kahb al- Ahbar for example mentioned that the brother of the king of “Misra” that ruled in the time of Joseph and drowned in the Red Sea was Qabus, a descendant of Faran the Amalekite (See Part I)  Al Tabari calls him “Qabus b. Mus'ab b. Mu'awiyah b. Numayr b. al-Salwas b. Faran b. Amr b. Amalek” ( Prophets and Patriarchs, p. 154)
        Tabari wrote concerning Qabus and his brother Walid a text translated as follows:
“Moses was born to Amran and his mother was Jochebed, and some say that her name was Anahid.  His wife was Zipporah bt. Jethro, who is Shu’ayb the prophet.  Moses begat Gershom and Eliezer.  He left for Midian out of fear when he was forty-one years old and called people to the religion of Abraham.  God appeared to him at Mt. Sinai, when he was eighty years old.  The pharaoh of Egypt in his days was Qabus b. Mus’ab b. Mu’awiyah the second master of Joseph.   His wife was Asiyah bt. Muzahim b. Ubayd b. al-Rayyan b. Al Walid the first pharaoh of Joseph. When Moses was called he was informed that Qabus b. Mus’ab had died and that his brother, al-Walid b. Mus’ab had taken his place…It was said the al-Walid married Asiyah bt. Muzahim after his brother.” From the Ta'rīkh al-rusul wa'l-mulūk “Prophets and Kings” (Brinner, 1991, pp. 30-31)
        Now it is said Walid, brother of Kabus was the ruler who drowned in the Red Sea. Of Walid it has been written “Walid, the brother of Kabus, is generally supposed to be that king of Egypt with whom Moses had to do, and who was drowned in the Red Sea. Most of the commentators on the Koran tell us this prince was an Arab of the tribe of Ad, or, as others say, of Amalek, who were also Arabians, though some pretend he was of Koptic descent (Fielden, J.L., 1876,  p.24-25).  What’s more, Tabari and Ibn Kathir wrote when Joseph was purchased, “the Amalekite” named Al –Rayyan or Riyan son of al-Walid was in charge of Misr .   Tabari also wrote as follows with regards to Joseph and Potiphar:
 “Joseph was sold for twenty dirhams by his brother…As for the man who bought Joseph from Malik b. Da’ar in Egypt and who said to his wife ‘Receive him honorably’, Ibn Abbas reports that his name was Qittin. According to Muhammed b. Sa’d…Ibn Abbas:  the name of the one who bought him was Qatafir(Potiphar), and it is said that his name was Itfir b. Rawhib and that he was ruler and in charge of the Egyptian Treasury. At that time the King was al Rayyan b. Al-Walid a man of Amalekite stock…” (Brinner, p. 153).
      Of Walid it is said that he is the first to be called “pharaoh” and he was “of the tribe of Ad although others say that of Amlak, i.e. an Amalekite” (1747, p. 117) “Another account gives the full name of the king and Pharaoh of Egypt at that time as al-Rayyan b. Al-Walid b. Tharwan b. Arashah b. Qaran b. ‘Amr b. Imlaq b. Lud b. Shem b. Noah”  (Brinner, p. 153)   Another version says that Daluka ruled after Walid.  She is sometimes said to be his daughter or a distant relation of his (1747, p. 118).

Daluka, surnamed Al Ajuz, or the Old Woman of the royal blood, succeed the pharoah who drowned in the Red Sea. This queen is said to have been the most expert woman of her time in  magic. Shelived a hundred years, and encompassed the city of Mesr with walls…I quote this account for what it is worth. So far, it confirms the statement of other authors, that aboutor in the time of Joseph and the sojourn of the Israelites, Egypt was ruled by Pharaohs or kings of Esau's race, when they threw off the yoke of Jacob (Fielden,  p. 25). 
      Josephus divided the land of Edomites into Amalekites and Gebalites (Hebbe, 1848, p. 401). Although authors sometimes use or translate the name Misra or Kipti as the modern country of "Egypt", in the usage of the early Arab writers these names often refer to Amalekite peoples rather than the country of Egypt they are said to have conquered. After Daluka daughter of "the Amalekite", the ruler who succeeds her is called Darkun, son of Malthus or Baltus (Crosthwaite, 1839, p.234; Sale, 1747, p. 118).  This name sounds like another name for an ancient "Himyarite " king Dhu Tarkun.
     Then came Thardan king of the Amalekites. one version says that Walid was his son. Thardan was son of Amalek son of Eliphaz son of Esau - "Jacob's twin brother" (Fielden, p. 91). Scholars now consider that this name of Daluka ,daughter of Zabba (also called Zaffan), to be in fact “Zuleika” of other Arab tradition (El Daly, 2005, p. 133). And, this Zabba may be Za'b ibn Malik a tribe of Khufaf mentioned above. He is perhaps Zebah (also spelt Zeeb or Zebab) the biblical Midianite ruler, if not "Zephon" son of Gad son of Zilpah.
       It is very possible then that the name of  “Zilpah” is related to "Zuleikha" in the way the name "Tarikha", wife of Moses is also spelt "Zarifah" (biblical Zipphorah). Zilpah’s sister is according to Rabbinic sources is Bilha and both “Bilha” and  “Rachel” are names closely related to that confederation of tribes in Hijaz and Central Arabia known as Ghatafan and Banu Sulaym.  Otherwise Zuleika also has the same role as Asenath in the Bible. And most scholars consider her to be Asenath. Zuleika of the Quran is the seducer of Joseph and wife of Potiphar.  Some sources refer to Potiphar’s wife as Ra’il rather than Zuleika. Ra’il, Ra'la or Rahil in English is "Rachel", who is wife of Jacob. (See Genesis 29) 


       The genealogy for the tribe of Sulaym is Sulaym. b. Mansur b. 'Ikrima son of  Khasafa (Khanam, p. 720). The latter’s brother was Ghatafan and they were sons of Qays Ailan, “son of Mudar”.  Thus writes the author of the recent compilation The Sealed Nectar, “Of Qais 'Ailan were the Banu Saleem, Banu Hawazin, and Banu Ghatafan of whom descended 'Abs, Zubyan, Ashja' and Ghani bin A'sur…” (al-Mubarakpuri, 2002, p. 11).
     Referring to the confederation of tribes called Mudar or Muzar another writer notes, “The two main branches of the north Arabs descend through Mudar and Rabi’a. From the former, through Qays Aylan, spring Bahila, Hawazin and Ghatafan. Thaqif are descended from Hawazin, and 'Abs and Dhubyan from Ghatafan.” (Meisami and Starkey, 1998, p. 780).
     The clans of ‘Abs and “Ghutayf” are mentioned as batun or clans of the Murad tribe of the Maddhij in Yemen in early Islamic sources as well (Mad’aj, 1988, p. 91).
       It is known that the Ghatafan were bedouins that in early Islamic times that “lived between Medina and Kheibar, the main Jewish oasis to the north of Medina. The Beni Sulaym lived to the south of Medina, astride the main caravan route from Mecca”(Gabriel, 2011, p. 109).  However before settling in Medina they were a people which included the Ghutayf of the Tayyi who belonged to a clan called Murad. Both the Tayyi and the Murad were of the Arabian group called Maddhij (or Maddhig). The southern Arabian genealogical tradition asserts that the Bahila, Ghani Bin Asur, Ghutayf and Ghatafan and Abs and Ashja’ of North Arabia were originally Yemenite tribes of Kahlan belonging to Banu Maddhij and Azd of Saba.
      The 9th c. Ibn Jahiz lists Ghutayf and Ghatafan together in his Book of Misers together noting – “the Tayy, Ghutayf and Ghatafan tribes”  summoned “one another to war with the braying sound of a donkey” - as is still done in Arabia. The commentator of this book correctly notes that Ghutayf b. Harithah was a clan that was head of Ghatafan and as “a tribe of Tayyi… in the Mountain of Tayyi area” ( Sergeant, Book of Misers p. 201  fn. 1001)
     The Tayyi were a people of Yemen related to the Banu Madhhij. The mountains of Tayyi mentioned are located in north central Arabia. Early in pre-Islamic times the Tayyi had settled in Iraq so that these Arabs were the people who were most often met with in Persia during the Sassanid era, and the land of “Tajikistan” is actually derived from their name as well as the Chinese word “Dashi’ for Arabs (Park, H. 2012, 203).

Shammar men of the Banu Tayyi Arabs in Arabia. Photo dated 1932 from Bertram Thomas's work, Arabia Felix, Across the Empty Quarter
       The original "children of Noah" such as the Tayyi, like the rest of the early Arabs including the Solymi were an Ethiopic people. “The home of the Tayyi, Shammar, consisted of two parallel ranges called Aja and Salma…” (Shahid, 2002, p. 251). Ibn Mandour in the 14th century wrote "the predominant complexion of the Arabs is dark brownish black and that of the non-Arabs is white."  Lisaan al-Arab IV:209.  Unlike the Syrian-originated tribes also called Shammar in Arabia today, the true Arab Shammar Tayyi from Arabia still wear the customary Saracen attire described by ancient writers.
        The name of the Shammar is supposed to be linked to that of the semilegendary figure, King Shammar of Yemen, who lived in the reign of Kai Kaus or Kabus of Persia thousands of years ago. The names Shammar, Tayy or Taj and Murad also figure in the legends and folklore of the ancient world and the allegories surrounding them are based partly on astronomical mythology.
      Tayyi is mentioned as a “son of Maddhij” by Ibn abd Rabbih  referencing the 9th century  Ibn Kalbi, and by others he is considered a brother (Abd Rabbih, p. 294). In the early Islamic period in Yemen the Ghutayf are designated a “batn” or clan of Murad branch of the Maddhij (Mad’aj, 1988, p. 91.) Rabbih writes “in the clan of Najiya ibn Murad are the Banu Ghutayf ibn Abd Allah ibn Najiya , and it is said they are Azdites”(Rabbih, 2012, p. 294).
     The ‘Abs and Dhubyan (also written Zubyan or Thibyaan, are named clans of the Murad and Madhhij in Yemenite early Islamic Yemenite texts (Maddh’aj, p. 91). While in the north they are considered tribes of Ghatafan from Qays AilanAbs a batn of the Murad (Mad’aj, p. 91) belonging to Maddhij were at one time “the most powerful element” in Ghatafan. (Kennedy, 2005, p. 252).
       The Sulaym are well known in Arab texts of Ibn Athir circa 11th c. and Jahiz (9th c.) as a very black –skinned population living in the harrat region of Medina.  Like the Sulaym, the Abs are according to Ibn Abd Rabbih the 6th volume of  The Unique Necklace said to have been described by an eyewitness “black-skinned men shaking their spears”.  And the photos of the Tayyi and Madhij above speak for themselves.
         This name of Ghutayf or Ghatafan may very well have some connection with the Near East or Muslim stories of Qittifin, Itfin, Itfir, or “ Kitfir” known in the west as Potiphar.  Notes one interpretor of Tabari’s book, Prophets and Patriarchs.The biblical name Potiphar appears in a variety of forms in Arabic sources, among them Qittin, Qittifin, Qutifar, Qitfir, Itfir, and Itfin.  See Shorter Encyc., 647, s.v. Yusuf b. Ya’kub.” ( Brinner, W. 1987, p. 153, fn. 362.)
        In the Ethiopic version of the story of Joseph as well apparently, an individual named “Qatifan” is said to be the adopted parent of Joseph. Tabari says that this individual was also known as Potiphar whose wife asked of Joseph “an evil act”. In the Torah or western Bible Joseph is a slave whom Potiphar’s wife attempts to seduce  Genesis 39:7-8 reads, "And it came to pass after these things, that his master's wife cast her eyes upon Joseph; and she said, lie with me, but he refused..."
         Richard Burton in his Arabian Knights writes Kitfir or Itfir (Potiphar)… his wife (Rail or Zulaykha) charged Joseph with attempting her chastity …” (Burton, 2009, fn. 210; parentheses are Burton’s). Thus, sometimes the woman in Arab tales is called Ra’il or Rahil, which is the name  Rachel, though she is made the mother of Joseph in the biblical version.
      According to Tabari, Potiphar’s wife was Ra’il, while the name of the man who bought Joseph was Qittin or “Qatafir (Potiphar), and it is said that his name was Itfir b. Rawhib.” (Brinner, p. 154.) Thus though Rachel is Joseph’s mother in the Western tradition, and Joseph’s seducer in traditions of the Middle East.
      Through Asenath, Joseph (also called Zaphnath) had two sons Manasseh and Ephraim. Tabari speaks of Asenath as  Asiyya “the Israelite woman”.  Names of the closely related group of tribes Rahil or Ra’la, or Rachel, Qitifan, and Assiyya (who was Asenath) were undoubtedly brought to Syria and the Hijaz from the area of  the Yemen. The name Manasseh likely corresponds to the name Mansour father of Soleym, recorded as Manasseir further south or "Manuchehr" in Iranian. The name Faran was identified as Ephraim his brother by Salibi.
       Soleym or Sulaym bin Mansur tribe of the Harra was in fact maternally derived from the Ateek and other Azd in Arab genealogy. Tabari writes of “the first of the Atikahs of the tribe of Quraysh who were female ancestors of the Messenger of God” (Watt, p 27). Thus, the Prophet of Islam always traced his maternal lineage from women named Ateek of the Sulaym tribe. According to one author the “ Prophet was wont to say 'I am the son of the El Awatek from the tribe of Solayem, [Atika, daughter of Hilal, Atika, daughter of Mora and Atika, daughter of El Awkass from the tribe of Sulaym…]” (El-Saadawi, 2007, p. 189).
        In the south among the Azd descended Dawasir, the tribe appears to be referred to as Suwelayim or Salaiyim (Lorimer, 1908, p. 394). The first Atikah was said to be the grandaughter of Nadr bin Kinanah (see part I) and mother of Lua’ay who was father of the clan of Ka’b bin Lu’ayy.
      By the period of the 9th century BC, it is quite probable Greeks like Homer knew them as the Solymi of Pisidia and Lycia and Asphalitis (the Dead Sea) in Israel and Jordan who they relate to Eastern Ethiopians and whose language they also categorize as a Phoenician type dialect. Ronald Syme noted “Choerilus says that they wore helmets of hide, made out of horses’heads. That is the distinctive badge of the eastern Ethiopian levies in Herodotus (7.70)   He adds Homer in Odysseus  5.283 “provides the link between Solymi and Ethiopians-when Poseidon paused and surveyed the seas from the vantage-point on the Solyma moyuntains he was returning from Ethiopian festivities.” (Gonzales, M. 2005, 261-282) (The matter of the Sulayim and Amluk as Meluchha and Mlecchas and “Ethiopians” of Arabia and Asia is to be discussed in Part III.)
       Here we can note however that this Lu’ayy of the Azd was in fact the same name as “Levi” of the Bible and his ancestor El-Yas was the biblical or Hebrew Elias “the Levite”, otherwise known as Elijah. It will be shown how these groups originated as people of the Azd of southern Arabia or Canaanites and moved into the region of Hijaz before entering Syria and the rest of the ancient world. 

Early depiction by non-Arabs of Elias (El-Yas) "the Priest"
       In Part I the relationship of some of ancient Afro-Arabians with the original Hebraic peoples featured in the Torah or Bible as addressed by ancient and Middle Eastern documenters was discussed.  It was noted the early Arabic writings refer to the south Arabian people of chapter 25 of Genesis the children of Keturah (still known as Bait Kathir), Udad (Yudadas or Dedan), Al-Tawsim (Letushim), Ashurim, Luqaym/Lakhm (Lehummim), Ghassan (Jokshan), the Afran/Afras (Afras or Aphren), and Myda’an  or Maadi’an  (Midian or Midianites), as a closely related people of “Ad” and “Azd” i.e. Amalekite/Melukhha ancestry originating in the Yemen. These were at one time the confederation of camel-owning incense traders of  “Qeturah”, which leaving the Yemen had settled in Hijaz and in the “troglodyte” regions of Africa.  We are told by Josephus the Jewish Roman historian that these same people came to settle in “western Ethiopia” or further west in Africa and had conquered the north African coastal regions under Cathim, “Herakles” and “Didorus”-  who are the folk ancestors Katam, (Gibb, 1954, p. 540) Herak, Herik and Daris in the genealogies of the Tuareg and other remnants of the original “Libyo-Berbers”  (MacMichael, 1922, 202).
        We have also seen that contrary to what is found in modern or biblical tradition, such Midianite or Israelite leaders, Moses, Solomon, Barak, Jephunah, Lokman/Baalam and Amram/Amran (relative of Moses) figure regularly in various early Arabian, and Middle Eastern texts in general as individuals of the “Imlaq”, “Amluq” or Amalekites of southern and western Arabia otherwise designated by the names of A’ad (Adites), Aus (Uz) and  Azd. It is not hard to see that those called in south Arabian folk history the Ufayr b. Luqaym (or Lakhm) and named the “‘chiefs of the last Ad” in Yemeni or south Arabian folk history (Crosby, 2007, p. 130) are the same as the Aphren of the Genesis, brother of “Lehumim” both children of Qeturah and Abraham.
       These tribes and clans of the Afro-Arabian peoples - an extension of Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples of the Nile, east Africa and Nubia who’d been in Arabia for thousands of years are those who moved north into Syria, Mesopotamia and Anatolia carrying their names i.e. Soleymi or Solymi and Masikha or Meshech.  These “children of Noah” who expanded further abroad are known in the Bible as children of Japhet or Iapetos, also called Jupiter.
        But, as a result of the misplaced territories of the biblical Israelites and Mizraim and/or Misra in western tradition, many modern archaeologists and other scholars rightfully doubt the historicity of the Torah or Bible and especially its late interpretations of ancient Egyptian/Israelite relations.  
     As noted in Thomas Cheyne’s 1902, Encyclopedia Biblica, under the heading Mizraim, “The connection of Solomon, however, with Egypt is very disputable; it was probably with the N. Arabian Musri that he was connected by marriage”  (Cheyne, 1902, p. 129).
       The 5th century AD Armenian, St. Moses of Khorene refers to Mizraim as son of Kush, and it appears that the ancient and modern Arabian confederation of Musra or Musri (modern Masruh or Musruh) were in fact the most common Misra referred to in the Bible. The names Kipti and Keftiu also appear to have been related to and originally referred to peoples and places unrelated to modern Egypt, which in truth had its own name of Khamit until a late period. The Qahtan confederation still called Musruh or Masruh, located in the same region as the ancient Musri even in the 20th century includes names strikingly similar to those designated children of Misrah son of Ham in the Bible (to be discussed in Part 3).


        Azd tribes and followers of Muzaikiyya that had moved northward are often referred to as Adnanites or Ishmaelites, but we will see their names are clearly connected to those of the biblical Israelites as well.  It will be shown that these Arabian Masruh comprising groups of people that came to be known as “the northern Arabs” in contrast to “the southern Arabs”, are in fact among those designated “the peoples of Judah” and Israel in the western Bible, but were for the most part originally “Yemenites” as well.
        Here is one small example of what I mean. Tabari wrote – “it has been said the Banu Ma’n of the Azd are called the Bahilah” (Blankenship, 1989, p. 11).  Now, historically, the Azd-descended Bahila after leaving the Marib area were known to have pastured their flocks in a region called  Sawd or Sud Bahila (Sud or Sawad signifies black, rich and cultivated soil) where large quantities of silver and brass were reportedly mined in pre-Islamic times (this is the southern region of the Yemamah mines in the area of the Nejd in south Central Arabia). This district was or is filled with gold and silver mines which have been worked from ancient times.
      Bahila had come to settle in the part of Yemama called Irid or Irdh (the same word as biblical Arodh meaning donkey) or Irdh Shamam. In this area is the town of Hafir with mines called after the Al-Hufaira tribe. This name is not improbably the same as the famed Ophir, a locale of the book of Job in the Bible where Solomon mined gold. It is associated associated with a major center called Juzaila or Djazala in the Ird (Al Askar, 2002,  pp. 49-50).  The Bahila are also early on mentioned with a tribe called Jasr or Jasir in the Bisha (or Bisah) region in Asir (Khanam, p. 92). 
      Other branches of the tribe of Bahila that were well-known in Arab genealogy include the Ghani also translated Ghunay or Ghaniyy living also in the Bisha region, also the Suhm or Sahm (Ibn Abd Rabbih, 2012, vol. 3 p. 269) and Ya’sur or A’sur.  Thus one author wrote, “Among the ancient poets is Munabbih A’sur ibn Sa’d the progenitor of Bahila, Ghani and At-Tufawa” (Howell, 1883,  M. p. 525)  According to one encyclopedia on the Middle East, Bahila was the mother of Malik bin Asur …the brothers that came to make up the Bahila bin Y’asur or Asur. Bahila, are thus called “ Bahila b. A'sur, brothers of the Ghani" (R. Khanam  2005 p. 92).  This may be the Munabbih, who were a sub-tribe of the Yemenite Madhhij from the tribe of Banu Hamdan (Kays, p. 339).
                Now all of this is mentioned because according to the Bible in1 Chronicles 7:13 and Genesis 46:25 one of Jacob’s concubines is named ‘Bilhah” the niece of Isaac’s wife “Rebecca”  according to Rabbinic sources.  Bilha’s sons were Dan and Naphtali whose children are mentioned in  Numbers 26:48-50, which reads, “The descendants of Naphtali by their clans were: through Jahzeel, the Jahzeelite clan; through Guni, the Gunite clan;  through Jezer, the Jezerite clan;  through Shillem, the Shillemite clan.  These were the clans of Naphtali; those numbered were 45,400.”  This Jahzeel, Guni and Jezer of Bilha are seemingly the names of Azd clans of Bahila of the Asir (Bisha region) with her offshoots of Ghunay/Ghani (Ghuni) and Jasr/Jasir (Jezer), along with  Juzaila or Jazila (Jahzi’el/Jahzeel)(Khanam, p. 92). Abd Ibn Rabbihu also writes “Lakhm begat Jazila”. (p. 296). See below and Part I on the Azd tribe of Lakhm and Ma’n.
       Furthermore, Bahila traditionally has a clan called Banu Suhm or Sahm, whose genealogy is Suhm b. Amr b. Thalabah B. b. Ghanm b. Qutayba b. Ma’n b. Malik b. Asur (Landau- Tasseron, 1998, p. 84). Ibn Abd Rabbih thus wrote that the clan of “Sahm was in Bahila” (Rabbih, 2012, p. 269).  Thus it is not coincidence that in the Bible book of Numbers 26:42 says of Bahila’s son Dan - “These were the descendants of Dan by their clans: through Suham, the Suhamite clan. These were the clans of Dan: All of them were Suhamite clans; and those numbered were 64,400.
       According to an early Arab source, "originally Bahila was the name of a woman of Hamdan who was [married] to Ma'an".

      The Habbaniyya or Habban of Hadramaut claim they are of the clan of Dan children of "Bilha". Not surprisingly, Arab sources make them a clan of "Bahila" as well.

             The Arab text transcribed by Harold MacMichaels also states the "Habbani'a are the descendants of Habban, son of el Kulus, son of Amr, son of Kays, a sub-tribe of Bahila" (MacMichaels,  1922, p. 186).
         The tribe of Dan from which the Arabian Habbani claim descent according to the book of Judges of the Bible lived between the region of Zorah and Eshtaol which Salibi identified with the modern al-Zarah and al-Ishta in the Zahran region of the Asir, former homeland of the Zahran tribe of the Azd (Zahran is the name of a Dawasir clan and tribal ancestor) (Salibi, 1985, p. 162). The book of Judges 18:8 reads, “When they returned to Zorah and Eshtaol, their fellow Danites asked them, ‘How did you find things?’" (New International Bible, 2011 translation). Thus, names of the Azd tribe of Ma’n bin Malik bin Ya’sur are seemingly related to the names of the ancient Israelite homelands. Bilha of the biblical land of Israel is unquestionably the Bahila of the highlands Asir Tihama and south Ird in Central Arabia.
       Not surprisingly the site of the ancient Israelite Eshtaol has yet to be decided upon by modern scholars. The modern town called Eshtaol in Israel was only founded in 1949. Says one recent specialist, “The location of biblical Eshtaol has been greatly disputed over the years. Scholars have agreed on a general location for the city, but not on the actual site” (Chestnut, 2008, p. 3) This name of Dan corresponds to that of the Azd or Dawasir tribe Duwaniyyah or Dhuwayyin and Dandan in the Asir region both being probably plural for Dan as suggested by Salibi.
        Though difficult to believe it is fascinating to discover that in fact the Azd of the region of Asir, the Yemen and south Central Arabia were the people that appear to have figured in the early Hebrew texts as “children of Israel” or “Yisra’el” through various concubines of Jacob. It will be shown that the Bahilah clans that were kinsmen to Banu Ma’n bin Malik b. Y’asur, originated from the Ma’an, i.e. Minaeans or Me’unim who had also lived in both Yemen and Hadramaut and traded with the Phoenician town of Tyre (Sur - which Salibi identifies as a town in the Yemen, not Lebanon).  In fact a town of Faniqa -  probably named for the latter population - still lies in the Wadi Bisha region not far from the Eritrean Sea where Herodotus claimed the Phoenicians originated (Salibi, 2007,  p. 159). The name of this town can obviously be related to that of the Fenkhu - the ancient Egyptian word for  “Phoenician”..

        The earliest mention of the Ma’an or Ma’n of the Azd is in the western region of Hadramaut (south central part of al-Yaman or theYemen), and they appear to be called Ma’onites or Me’unim in the Bible. And, they are the historical Ma’in or Minaeans of modern archaeologists. By the 4th century, inscriptions mention Minaean caravans at Dedan in the northern region of the Hijaz (Negev and Gibson, 2001, p. 137). From inscriptions it is also known that they worshipped a deity known Yasurbaal or Yasrabel which some believe to be “Baal Sur” of the Canaanites of Tyre (or Sur).  Baal Sur was called Melkarth (a name to which is related that of the hero “Heracles”).   
        Scholars don’t look at the Mineans as the Phoenicians and are not clear on when the Minaean culture originated. “Having some time ago discarded the old chronological scheme supported by Glaser and partly based on Arabic sources, according to which the origin of the Minaean Kingdom dated back to the beginning to the second millennium B.C. scholars have been trying to clarify the chronology of the South Arabian Kingdoms, on the additional basis of the data obtained from excavations …”  (Costa, 1978,pp. 11-12)   
       Most interestingly it had been noticed by some that the name of Levi and the Levites - who were the Israelite priests - is found in Minean inscriptions (Cohu, John R., p. 18, fn. ) Bible dictionaries also make the name “Meunim”, that of a Levite”;  and “head of a group of temple servants in Ezra's time.” The author of Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions, the Dominican priest Roland de Vaux, mentioned the association of the Minaeans with the Levitic traditions of the Israelites, but dismissed in a round-about way the Minean connection to the origins of this priestly caste.
      De Vaux wrote “some writers have concluded that the Israelites adopted the institution of Levites from those early Arabs with whom they had been in contact at Sinai.”  But he argued the words lw and lw’t were found only in Minaean inscriptions from Northern Arabia, at Dedan, and never in those from the South, nor in any other South Arabian dialect. And thus he proposed that the Minaeans may have borrowed the word from a colony of Babylonians installed in Dedan where there were also presumably Jews (de Vaux, 1997, p. 369) and then he suggests theformer “modified the sense of the term and gave it a feminine which did not exist in Hebrew.”
      Lawy or Lowi is often found in medieval Arab genealogies as the name Lu’ayy. Tabari claimed that one tradition was that the mother of Lu’ayy, Atikah, was from the tribe of Kinanah and a descendant of an individual named Luhay. One tradition says she was called “Salma” granddaughter of Luhay who was a great grandson of Amr Muzaikiyya (Moses) grandson of Khuza’a.  Thus an encyclopaedia reference regarding the Khuza’a clan of the Azd reads.    

KHUZA  b. Amr, name of a South-Arabian tribe, a branch of the large tribe of Azd. The genealogists with few exceptions are unanimous in tracing their pedigree through ‘Amr, surnamed  Luhay b. Rabi’a b. Haritha b. Muzaikiya and they agree further that they, together with the other branches of the Azd, left South Arabia at a remote time and wandered with them to the North. When they reached the territory of Mekka, most of their kinsmen continued their journey, the Ghassan to Syria, Azd Sanua to Oman, but Luhay remained with his clan near Mekka” (Krenkow, 2013).    

     These children of Luhay from the tribe of Khuza or Khaza’a came to be called Laheyan or “Lihyanites”, a people historically affiliated with the Minaeans. Retso notes Dedan was taken over by a new tribe or dynasty, Lihyan. We also find the presence of another new entity there, namely the Minaeans who came from South Arabia and set up a colony in Dedan obviously in cooperation with Lihyan.” According to one source however,The Lihyanite dialect not only resembles the Minaean dialect of the South Arabians, but appears to have been derived from it” (Agwan and Singh, 2006, p. 714).
     Descendants of these Lihyanites are in fact called Lahiyan today, a large clan of the Banu Hudhail b. Mudrika (also written Hudhal, Huthayl or Hatheyl) still dwelling not far from Mecca -  a kind of “tropical Arabs” with "shining", "black" skins according to Charles Doughty. “A nomad family met us (of Hatheyl or Koreysh) removing upward: they were slight bodies and blackish, a kind of tropical Arabs …” (Doughty, 1888, p. 528 and 535).

      The name of “Luhay” appears in ancient Sabaean inscriptions (Schiettecatte, 2012, p. 50). And for good reason  - the name is thought to be Lehi of the Bible. 

"The Lihyanites were originally named the Dedanites after the Grandson of Abraham; however, they changed their name to the People of Lihy around 550BC,  shortly after Lehi and his family would have been traveling down the Frankincense Trail.”
         Hudhayl was the uncle of Kinanah b. Khuzaimah according to Arab tradition.  Hudhayl’s brother is Khuzaimah bin Mudrika. In fact, Arab genealogists make Khuza’a -  ancestor of Luhay - and the Lakhmids, Ghassan and Ma’n all one people who left with others from Marib - their ancestors being the followers of a “Muzaikiyya” once subject to the Himyarite chiefs (in that time the A’ad or Amalekites/Midianites) there in Yemen and Marib (Meribah –Exodus 17). The tribes of Kinanah and Luhayan or Lahiyan who moved north capturing various sites from earlier owners are maternal descendants of  Azd and Himyarite women named Atika, Kaylah and Salma.
     The 9th century historian Asma'i summarized the settling of the Lakhmids of the Azd in the early Christian era.
‘They (the southern Arabs) did not enter a land without robbing its people of it. Khuza’a wrested Mecca from Jurhum; Aws and Khazraj wrested Medina from the Jews; the clan of Mundhir  seized Iraq from its people; the clan of Jafna  seized Syria from its people and ruled it; and the progeny of ‘Imran ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Amir [of al-As/zd] seized Oman from its people. Up till then all of these (southern tribes) had been in obedience to the kings of Himyar.’(Cotton, H., 2009, p. 388)  The parentheses here are the author's.
      This Asma’i, a historian from the tribe of Bahilah, likely knew that the Lakhmids and Khuza’a were  branches of Ghassan also known as “the house of Jafnah” (Jephuneh).  In fact the Jews of Medina and Khaibar were descendants of the Judham who were closely related to the Lakhm and Ma’n tribes of Azd (Gil, p. 19).
       Just previous to the birth of the Muslim Prophet in the 7th century, Banu Judham (or Gudham) were found north of the Hijaz in Palestine. Moshe Gil in his text, A History of Palestine, 634-1099, talks about the tribe of Judham belonging to the Lakhm tribe in the Islamic period there:
“Lakhm, as the Judham was to be found on the Palestinian border before the advent of Islam…The Banu Lakhm, whose major strength was centred in the region of the northern Euphrates, but who also had branches within Palestinian territory… According to tribal genealogical records, Lakhm were the brothers of Judham. From the Arab sources, we get the impression that these tribes, allies of the Byzantines on the eve of the Islamic conquests, roved about the Palestinian border lands and concentrated in Arabia, that is Provincia Arabia,…” (p. 19).
     And in a footnote 10 on the same page Gil adds,According to certain Arab sources, the Banu Nadir and the Banu Qurayza, the major Jewish tribes in Medina, Khaibar and Hijaz, were considered descendants of the Banu Judham” (Gil, p. 19, fn. 10). What’s more, the Banu Nadir and Qurayza of Hijaz were considered Kahanim or Jewish priests (Stillman, p. 9; Zeitlin, 2007, Chapter 5 ) As we see in the paragraph below the Banu Judham in turn were the “Midianites”.

"The principal tribe occupying the desert area south of Palestine was that of the Banu Judham. According to Arab sources, their land was called Madyan…Antoninus Placentinus of Piacenza, Italy) who visited the region in ca. 570, mentions Arabs whom he calls Midianites, encountered in Eilat en route to Sinai... According to him they claimed descent from Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, as it is also said, in Arab traditions of the Banu Judham, that they were the kinsfolk of Shu’ayb, whom some sources identify with Jethro. An important branch of this tribe were the Banu Wa’il… a certain part of which was inclined towards Judaism, as were other clans of the Banu Judham.” ( p. 18)

       Gil also notes that the Baghdad born al-Masudi (9th century) said of the Nadir (Jews of Medina) that they were offspring of  Judham, and that the Qurayza claimed priestly descent from Shu’aib, in particular prophet of Madyan (Midian) in particular who was of the Banu Judham (Azd) people (Gil, 2004, p. 11)  But as mentioned in Part I one Arab tradition makes Shu’ayb fourth in descent from Madyan. (Madyan was not just the name of a tribe, but a city near a town called Ma’an according to Tafsir of Ibn Kathir)
      Some sources in fact mention Judham as offspring of A’sar, or Ya’fur son of Madyan b. Ibrahim (Gil, 2004, p. 14, fn. 12), which is said to be the origin of Shu’ayb. Gil in fact speaks of many of the traditions connecting the Judham and Shu’ayb, but nevertheless manages, as do most scholars on ancient Israel, to avoid noting the most uniform or consistently expounded tradition concerning their origins. Shuayb and the Midianites, Judham, Jafnah (Jephuneh), Ghassan and related tribes are all people said to have come from the dispersal of the Azd confederation of the Yemen. The ancient Azd-related Judham, Ghassan, Jazila, Bahila and Lakhm and descendants in Hijaz and Africa and elsewhere obviously didn’t know that 3,000 years after their dam in Marib broke in Sana’a foreign peoples in the northwest and northeast would adopt their genealogies and make them into “Mesopotamians” stretching unto Turkey, before finally accusing true peoples of “Shem”, “Ham” and “Japhet” of adopting “the religion of Abraham”.
       The genealogy of Arab writers frequently makes mention of the tribe of  Banu Yashkur as a branch of the Azd tribe of Jazila ibn Lakhm.  Abd Rabbih writes, “In Jazila ibn Lakhm, there are many clans. Of them are Irash, Hujr, Yashkur Ghanim and Jadis a large clan”. As Salibi and others have pointed out, the name of Yashkur is actually the name Yissakhar or “Issachar” of the Bible – and not surprisingly, another name of one of the children of Israel (Jacob/Ya’qub was father of Issachar)
      MacMichael’s, History of the Arabs in the Sudan reads “The rule of Lakhm at Hira ended with the rise of Islam. At the conquest of Egypt the Yashkur section of the tribe established themselves upon the hill called after them…” (MacMichael,   pp. 140 – 141).   Another source says, “The Banū al-Hārith ibn-Yashkur ibn-Mubashshir of the Azd had an idol called Dū Sharā”  Hisham al-Kalbi. (Kitab al-Asnām). Healey ,2001, 106).
       In Part I we saw how Jadis, Al-Tawsim and Lakhim are connected in Arab genealogy, and that they are identified as ancestral Amalekites or al-Amluq, Letusim, and Lehumim. The Ghanm mentioned by abd Rabbih above appear to be the Ghanim of the Azd whose descendants the Ghanm or Ghunnam still live today in Wadi Liyyah (Leah) in the Asir Tihamah next to the Wadi Ta’Ashar.
      Now immediately after mentioning the clan of Yashkur ibn Jazilah ibn Lakhm and Jadis.  Ibn Abd Rabbih mentions something else. He notes that the clan of "Jadas" bin Jazila bin Lakhm were among those clans and one of their tribal members brought Joseph out of the well. If the clan of Yashkur is Issachar, son of Jacob and Leah, is this clan of “Jadas” not also that of "Gad" another of Jacob’s sons.
      The Torah/Bible says, “The sons of Zilpah, Leah's servant, were Gad and Asher” Genesis 35:26. It is not that much of a mental jump to see that Jadas is perhaps “Gad”. Gad's 6thson in Numbers 23:17 is incidentally named Arodh whose name is also mentioned above. At the same time the tribe of Asher and Gad may very possibly be the Ash'ar and their clan of "Judda" mentioned by Ibn Abd Rabih and others (Ibn Abd Rabbih, 2012, p. 295)..
         One Arab genealogy says Yashkur was the son of Rahm (or Ruhm) son of b. Basr b. Uqba, in other words a great grandson or descendant of a man named “Uqba”. The name Uqba like Jacob means "heel". This genealogy is thus likely reference to the Banu Uqba of the modern region of Midian (Madyan of northern Hijaz) mentioned by Orientalist historian Richard Francis Burton who writes in his book Land of Midian, that Al Kalkashendi  in the fifteenth century makes the Uqba tribe descendants of the Gudham (Judham) of the Kahtaniyyah (Qahtan) of the Yemen. (From the looks of things one should be wondering about the etymological roots of this interesting name of "Judham" as well. After all, This is after all a tribe of Yehud (Jews)of "Kahanim" (priestly) stock who were living in a land called Musra (Misra) and traditionally living amongst and descended from Mady'an (Midian) : )
      The name of Wady Madian was called Wadi Makn’a or Makkan (Magan), an area mentioned by the Assyrians by the 8th c. B.C. near a people and region otherwise called Melukha or Misra (Musri). The region of Makkan/Magan was also called Kush in Assyrian texts, and we have already identified Kush as derived from the name of Banu Gassan or Kassan. (See Part I and previous posts).
     In Land of Midian, Richard Burton also identified the Uqba with remnant Midianites. He wrote:

the Beni ‘Ukbah, as will be seen, once occupied the whole of Midian Proper, and extended through south Midian as far as the Wady Damah…According to our friend Furayj, the name means “Sons of the Heel” (‘Akab)…at first called “El-Musalimah,” they were lords of all the broad lands extending southward between Shamah to the Wady Damah, below the port of Ziba Al Hamdany stated Uqbah was the son of Moghrabi son of Heram (Burton, p. 260).
     This "Heram" is mentioned by the Arab authors as a tribe to which Ghatafan was related.  As ibn Abd Rabbih notes “in Haram ibn Judham are the Bani Ghatafan and Afsa…” (Abd Rabbih, 2012, p. 296).
      Thus, if we are to follow the Arab genealogists the Ma’an, Magan and Gassan, Bani Nadir, or Judham, Uqbah, and Liyhan, Khuza’a, Aus and Khazraj were in fact the earliest Israelites, or followers of Moses and the Midianites. The speculation that Minaeans adopted the priestly Levitical traditions from suspected Jews returning from Babylon is unnecessary with the realization of the Arabian tradition that the original Jewish priests of Midian WERE, IN FACT, the historical Minaeans. The Azd clans of Ma’an, Judham, Lakhmids, or “Midianites”, were brothers to the Banu Gassan (Jokshan) Aus (Uz), Khazraj (Jazar/Gezer), and other Yemenite populations.  From them thus came the “Israelite” clans and tribes of Banu Yashkur (Issachar), Banu Bahila (Bilha), Banu Ghani (Ghuni son of Bilha and Naphtali), Jasir (Jezer son of Bilha) and Banu Jazila bin Lakhm of Abd Rabbih (Jahzeel son of Bilha) who are Issachar, Bilha, Ghuni, son of Naphtali and Bilha, Jezer and Jazilah sons of Bilhah and Naphtali, Gad, and son Arodh.
     It was in fact the great grandson of this Jazila bin Lakhm who according to Ibn abd Rabbih “ brought out Yusuf ibn Ya’qub, God’s blessings and peace be upon him from the well” (Rabbih, 2012, p. 296). Or, as the first book of the Torah/Bible says of Jacob’s (Israel’s) son Joseph, “Now some Midianite merchants were passing, and they pulled Joseph out of the well.” (Genesis 37:28.)
       One can only conclude that all the above named were in fact at one time at least according to Arab tradition of the same African affiliated Arab people as now inhabitat parts of the Hadramaut, Central Arabia and Yemenite/Tihama region – the people who once dominated the peninsula. Not only were they the early Levitical peoples, but they were unquestionably the first fishermen who first brought the religion now known as Christianity to Syria, and then Islam to the Middle East. 
       Having an understanding of the Azd or Asir and Sabaean roots of these people i.e. the Canaanites and  Israelites we can thus better comprehend such assertions in the Hebrew texts that make the Meunim or Minaean  tribes of Hadramaut and Yemen a people living next door to such people as the  Moabites, Ammonites, Philistines and Israelites.  


Modern Huwayt'at of northern Arabia.  - Speaking of the Wadi Damah in Jordan Burton talks of, “its present Huwayti owners, the Sulaymiyyin, the Sulaymat, the Jerafin, …”  Volume 2 of the Land of Midian.

A Last Word on the Enigmatic Minaeans, i.e. MIDIANITES

       The origins of the Minaeans have baffled scholars due to the fact that they are known from texts and archaelogy as a people based in southern Arabia and yet are consistently mentioned in league with Canaanite peoples and their affiliates. We find the following passages about them in the Bible
      “And the Zidonians, and Amalek, and Meunim have oppressed you, and ye cry unto Me, and I delivered you from their hands  Judges 10 :12. In the Septuagint version of the Bible, the Meunites or Maonites are simply referred to as “the Midianites”. Confirming again that kinship of the Ma’an with Lakhm and Gassan who we have already identified in Part I as the “Ethiopic” peoples or Lehumim and Jokshan brothers of  of Midian and Asshur, dwellers of Asir Tihama and Marib in the Yemen.
       In the biblical book  2 Chronicles 20:1 "After this the Moabites and Ammonites, and with them some of the Meunites, came against Jehoshaphat for battle."
           In Chronicles 4 a man named Naaman is an Israelite king of Aram. He is said to be of the family of Benjamin. He is said to be the son Benjamin or of Benjamin’s son Bela, and head of the family of the Naamites or Naamathites and friend of Job of the land of Uz. The Septuagint in Job 2:11 renders a Zophar the Naamathite, as “king of the Minaeans”.
       At the time of Uzziah king of Judah, the Minaeans are in fact alliance with the Philistines. One of the places of these Me’unim, Gur Baal, is named right after the Gerar of the Philistines which Salibi identified with Qararah in Yemen. They are the people destroyed by the posterity of Simeon 1 Chronicles 4:41: These were the names of some of the leaders of Simeon’s wealthy clans. Their families grew, and they traveled to the region of Gerar, during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah, these leaders of Simeon invaded the region and completely destroyed the homes of the descendants of Ham and of the Meunites. No trace of them remains today.”
        Simcox writes that the Minaeans are the people of Gur Baal next to the Philistines saying “the Mehunims also read Meunites, are bracketed with the Arabians of Gur baal (Petra?) and the Philistines of Uzziah.” (Gur Baal of the Minaeans as we have shown was not in modern Petra).  Meanwhile the Targum uses the word “Edomites” for the Me’unites in 2 Chronicles 20:1. Sometimes especially in the Septuagint version of the Bible the name Meunim is replaced by Ammonite and in fact at other times simply as the people of Ham. (Simcox, 1897, p. 499) Thus we know they lived near the Philistines and other “children of Ham”.
      Now in Arabian tradition the famous king named Numan of the Yemenite region of Zuphar is said to have lived before the time of Lokman a descendant of Ad who in legend is associated with the dam at Ma’rib, sometimes said to be its builder. (In Part I of this blog Lokman was identified as Bil’am or Balaam). Al -Numan al’Ma’afir is by tradition the son of Yafar or Yafir son of Sacsac son of Wathil or Wa’il son of Himyar, a chief of the Sabaeans who lived near the time of the Himyarite (Sabaean) chief Dhu’l Ra’ish or Riyash (Crosby, p. 29; Miles, p. 7)
      Legend has it that the town of Zuphar (from Dthawi or Dhu Far) was founded by Shammar Harish sometimes called “son of Alamluk” (or son of the Amalekite), a descendant of Yafar who lived as we have seen a few thousands of years ago. Al Maqadisi or Muqadassi of the 10th century lists the names of the districts Al Umluk (Amluk), Mazra  and Dhu Makharim next to each other in the Yemen (Collins,  2001, p. 79).
     The matter of the Meunim or “Maonites” (who we have seen were Lakhm and Judham) settled in Judaea in the period of the exile has proven disconcerting since the south Arabian Minaeans would have had to have been in the region of Jordan and Syria in the time of early Israel. Scholars admit the Meunites or Maonites of1 Chronicles 4:41 and 20:7 are identical with the south Arabian Minaeans”, but then question where the Gur Baal mentioned was (Retso, pp. 141-142). Interestingly according to Burckhardt in Hijaz - “The Bedouins give the name of El Ghor, or the low-land, to the whole province westward of the mountains from Mekka up to Beder and Yembo” (Burkhardt 1826/2009, p. xiii). Most of the bedouin of el Ghor are Harb who are connected to the populations of Hijaz who came in the early Muslim conquests. They are also of Beliyy/Balawne and Maddhij (Zubayd) extraction who started emigrating in the Nabataean area northward from Arabia.

The three photos below of peoples of the Ghor a region extending from near the Mecca region to near the Dead Sea were added on July 23, 2018 because unfortunately I didn't know that these populations still existed. 

Ghor Safieh in the Ghor region of Jordan. Idrisi, Yakut and Maqrizi mention the people of al-Ghawr as dark brown and  near black with "woolly hair".  Most clans of the Ghawr include the Arabian people noted as Ishmaelites, Israelites and Nabataeans in biblical texts. This also including the Ken'aan - the true people who named Canaan - a lowland area originally south of Mecca. : )
Woman of Ghor Feifa. Famous regions of the Ghor (the Jordan Valley) include Ariha (Jericho), Baisan (Bayt Shean), the Yarmouk river basin and the Golan Heights to name a few.

Among the inhabitants of the Ghor are the many ancient tribes named throughout history including the Ken'aan. The people who named Canaan - an area originally south of Mecca. Idrisi, Yakut and Maqrizi mention the people of al-Ghawr as near black with woolly hair.  Yes the Canaanites are still in their lands. : ) 

     But even more interestingly up until the 11th century the land of Hadramaut in its entirety was supposedly still in the hands of Banu’ Ma’n, and a small group of them still live in a town called Al-Ghur in the Rizah region of Yemen.

     The Harper Collins Bible Dictionary summarizes the challenge posed to Biblical specialists.

“The Meunim are referred to in 1 Chron. 4:41; Ezra 2:50; and Neh. 7:52.  The same people (apparently) are referred to as the Meunites in 2 Chron. 20:1; 26:7. Both Meunim and Meunites are sometimes identified with the people known elsewhere in history as Minaeans, who occupied the region of Main in modern North Yemen….The Meunim of 1 Chron. 4:41 and the Meunites of 2 Chron. 26:7 are explicityly identified as Minaeans in the Greek LXX translation of the Bible, as are the Ammonites in 2 Chron. 20:1 and 26:8 and Zophar in Job 2:11. Such identifications are problematic, however, and may have resulted from the substitution of a more familiar name for a less familiar one. In Ezra 2:50 (cf. Neh. 7:52), the Meunim are temple servants.”

     Edith Simcox speculated that the writers of the Bible confused the time period in which the Minaeans lived noting that there were no mention of them in Assyrian inscriptions. She wrote in her Primitive Civilizations,
     “Another negative argument is supplied by the silence of the genealogical table in the tenth chapter of Genesis, where Saba is, and Ma’in is not mentioned, so that the latter was presumably not known in Palestine, either when the passage was first written or when the book was last edited.”
       But the truth is neither Sabaeans nor Minaeans are mentioned by the Assyrians in Palestine as these Meunim were known historically by names like Magan and Kush in Assyrian times. They are Khaza’a or Khuza’a who had branched off with Aus and Khazras from the Azd confederation, like Ghassan (Jokshan/Kushan), like Lakhm (Lehummim) and Judham.  They are thus probably mentioned under the name Hazu off southwest Arabia which has been identified  as the biblical Hazo, brother of Uz (Ephal, 1982, p. 133; Goodspeed, 1902, p. 295) and listed in Assyrian inscriptions with Dedan during the time of the Assyrian ruler, Esarhaddon. Salibi identifies the locale with Hazati of the Amarna letters and the Hazaataa of the topographical list of Sargon II of Assyria (Salibi, p. 72 and 74).
     Another brother of Uz and Hazo is Bethuel or Betawil in Arabic who bore Tebah, Gaham and Tahash or Thahash and Maacah through a concubine. "Dahash" is another Dawasir tribe still living in the Nejd (Lorimer, p. 394). 
      Still another brother of Uz (Aus) and Hazo (Khaza'a) is Kemuel. One finds Tabari referencing the Kemuel or Qamwal of Genesis as one who “lived in the time of Suleiman ibn Dawud” (King Solomon, son of David). And a closer look at traditional Islamic genealogies of the Prophet’s lineage shows that he is in fact Qama’ah mentioned with Tabikhah as “full-blooded” brothers of  Kinanah’s grandfather of Mudrikah.
     Tabari wrote of Nadr bin Kinana that al-Nadr’s mother is said to be from the tribe of Tabikha. In the same book he mentions the Hebraic genealogy stating that the name of Tahba or Tabakh was Tahab (for the biblical Tebah above) and he writes Gaham or Jaham as Jahma. Tabikha and Banu Juhma or Jumah are two historically documented clans of the Kinana (of Hijaz and Asir) who are clans among the Dawasir as much as they are a part of the Qays Ailan.
     Tabari states that Maacah was Ma’jalah in Arabic and the latter is today the name of a village in Yemen. He says that Tahab b. Jahma was the son of “Mahsha” whom he says was "Tahash".  But these names are too similar or even identical to the names of the Dawasir and sub-tribes of Kinanah, Qama’ah, Juhma and Dahash to be coincidental. Even today the Dawasir in the Wadi Dawasir region of Nejd live next to the people known both as Tebah and 'Uteibah" though they are also traditional enemies (Kupershoek, p. 59) Ibn Abd Rabbih links them closely to the Jodham saying "of the Beni Hishm ibn Jodham are the Benu Utayb ibn 'Aslam ibn Khalid ibn Shanu'a ibn Tadil ibn Hishm ibn Judham" (Rabbih, p. 296).  (Al-Qahma’a is apparently also a name of a tribe among the modern Mahra another people said to have branched off from Hamdan of Kahlan at a very early period and fled to the east.) 
     Uteibah or Tebah are considered part of the Hawazin from Qays Ailan in most of the genealogies. James Hamilton wrote about them a century ago, “they wore their hair in long curly plaits” and their skin was “a dark brown”(Bentley, R., 1857, pp. 129-130). 

Published 6/29/2013  6:29 PM    


See Part 3 of CANAANITES IN THEIR LANDS for the bibliography

Below:  Some of the Afro-Arabian tribes originally from southwest Arabia designated as "Joseph's Posterity" in the Book of Jasher (Yasher) as they are known  historically and today.  

Leah (Liyyah), Reuben (Rubanniyya), Levi (Lu'ayy), Issachar (Ushayqir/Ishkaran), Rachel (Rakhala Rahil), Benjamin (Yam), Zilpah (Zilfi), Gad (Judda),  Haggi (Hijji), Asher (Ash'ar), Bilha (Bahila), Zohar (Zahran), Gershom (Jursham), Perez (Faras or Farasan), Elon (Ailan), Chamul (Hawamil), Sered (Surayda), Dan (Dhanawiyyen?),  Jahzeel ( Jazila), Guni (Ghani/Ghunay), Jezer (Jasir), Shellam (Salim), Zephon (Zaffan), Serach (Shuraykha/Shuraikah),  Bela (Bela/ Beli), Naaman (Numan), Rosh (Ra'ish)

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Saturday, June 29, 2013

CANAANITES IN THEIR LANDS - Part 3 Edomites, Hebrews and Israelites in ancient and modern Afro-Arabia

  EDOMITES, HEBREWS AND ISRAELITES i.e. The Ancient Azd and Himyarites of the Asir Tehama
  By D. W. Reynolds

“To Aram b. Shem was born Uz b. Aram, whose home was al-Ahqaf.” Al-Tabari 9th AD,  From the book 
Prophets and Patriarchs, p. 16, William M. Brinner.

       In Arabian genealogy referencing the Azd tribes the eponymic ancestor of the tribe of “Ghanim” is said to be the “Ghanim” ibn “Daws” or Ghanim son of “Daus” which is still the name of the Dawwas or Daws of the modern tribe known as Dawasir. In turn, Daws bin Udthan was grandson of Zahran, or as the translation of Ibn Khallikan’s Biographical Dictionary goes -  Ghanim ibn Daus ibn Adnan ibn Abd Allah ibn Zahran” (Ibn Khalikan lived in the  13th century.)  (De Slane, B. M., 1845, p. 38)  Zahran in turn was grandson of the famous Azd group of the king or chief Harith bin Kab, whom named the Zahran region of Asir.
       It is clear that this Ghanm whose descendants live in the Asir region of Liyyah (Leah) are being referred to also by al-Tabari of the 9th century who writes in  Tarikh al-Rusul wa’l –Muluk also of  Ghanim b. Daws al-Azdi”, but also he notes the tradition  that the tribes of Ghanm and Makhramah were “the full blooded brothers of al Nadr” son of Kinanah. Their names are curiously like Ghanim, Makhramah and Nadir closely related Dawasir tribes for the last 1000 years in the Nejd region (Lorimer, p. 393-394; Watt, W. M. and MacDonald, M. p. 31, 1988).

A man from a Dawasir family (Abdulla al-Dousari) awaits his fate in an embassy in Central Saudi Arabia

      The Dawasir tribe of Makharim or Makharam (also called Makhir or Makharib) and Nadir are still extant in the Wadi Dawasir region of Nejd. Both Makharim and Nadir are part of the Farjan division of al Hasan Dawasir there (Lorimer, 1908, p. 394; Kupershoek, 1999, p. 45; Juhany, U. M., 2002, p. 68).
       In fact the groups named Kinanah and Quraysh today are still considered close relatives within the Dawasir confederation in Zahran (Asir). The Banu al-Nadr are literally a section of the Kinanah, a tribe whose descendants still inhabit  the Asir region. Thus, one translated genealogy in abridged form reads Nadir b. Humayl b. Munahhim, Lafath b. al-Sabuh b. Kinanah b. al-Awwam b. Nabt b. Qaydar b. Ismail (Watts, 1988, p. 40).  Still another longer version cited by Tabari apparently replicating the biblical text of Genesis 22 is "al-Awwam b. Nashid (Kasdana/Chesed) b. Bildas (Pildash) b. Yidlaf (Jadleph) b. Tabakh (Tebah) b. Jaham (Gaham) b. Tahash b. Makha b. 'Ayfa (Yafa) b. Abqar (Abchor) b. 'Ubayd  b. al-Da'a  b. Hamdan b. Sanbar (Bashmani/Eshban) b. Yathribi (Ithran/Bathran)" the latter being a descendant of Qaydar b. Ismail (Watt, W. M. and McDonald, M. V., pp. 39-40).
        Most of these were well- known Arab tribes stretching from the Yemen to the region of Mecca and Madina. As we have shown in the previous Part II, in particular the tribes of Dahash, Hamdan, Basman and Bidaran/Badran are counted among the Dawasir of Najd and Asir even today (Lorimer, 1908, p. 394). 
      This Ayfa, Ubayd and Al-Da'a are likely Ephah Abidah and Eldah/Eldad the Midianite peoples mentioned in Genesis 25:4 who supposedly settled in Africa See Josephus Antiquities Chapter 15. And the sons of Midian: Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch and Abida and Elda'ah. All these were the children of Keturah." See Josephus Antiquities Chapter 15 on the Midianites in Africa.
     There was a temple dedicated to "Awam" at Marib.
     Further north in modern Jericho of the modern Israel/Palestine are another section of the Kinanah and within it the clan of Quraysh. It is not that there are two separate tribes of Kinanah or Quraysh with separate genealogies in the north and the south, but simply that as certain clans left and branched off over generations new lineages were abridged attached and repeated. Kinanah is just one of many so called northern Arab tribes or Adnanites that have a southern genealogy as well due to the fact that the northern Arabs were originally southerners as well. 

                                                    Kinaniyya boy of modern Jericho (Israel/Palestine)

    Robert Spencer wrote, "It is said that the Quraysh explained their short stature and dark skin by
the fact that they always carefully adhered to endogamy." That is to say, they never bred outside of their kind. Several hundred years ago, it was a near black or black skin and kinky hair that was said to be the usual color of the Arabs.  And if we are to believe Ibn Abd Rabbihu the Maddhij tribe of the Kahlan apparently believed it to be one of  "the 7 wonders of the world" and even "unthinkable" for an Arab to be fair in complexion. Of course, times have changed. 
      Tabari wrote, some said  “… the descendants of al-Nadr ibn Kinana were called Quraysh because al Nadr came out one day to his tribal assembly and they said to one another look at Nadr he looks like a quraysh camel…Others say the Quraysh was so-called after a creature who lived by the sea and eats other sea creatures, namely the shark…”(Watt and McDonald, p. 22).
     Most interestingly some of  the names of the Zahran tribe of the Dawasir are early on found in a region called Khanawna (Kanunah or Kunawnah) up until early Islamic times (Khanam, 2005, p. 66 )
       One specialist  "has identified a number of Azd Sarat settlements as reflected in early Islamic sources.  Most of the Daws groups and the B. Masikha were in the Wadi Dawqa, though some were northeast of Ta’if.  Zahran groups, by which Strenziok apparently means the B. Hunais, were in the east and southeast, while in the Sara Ghamid from Wadi Khanawna to the east one found the Namir b. Uthman of Azd Shanu’a…” (Ulrich, 2008, p. 87).
       As we shall see it is indisputable that Tabari mentions numerous clan names identical to Dawasir or Azd names that were native to the Kanawna area and Asir (including al-Shara’a mountain range) in connection to groups that are specified in the Torah/Bible in Genesis 36 as Canaanites and Edomites and descendants of Abraham through Nahor in Genesis 22.  
      It suggests that Salibi was correct in concluding that the valley in southwest Arabia called Kanawna (the plural for Kan’an) was part of the true land of Kana’an or Canaan mentioned in the Old Testament. According to the Bible, the dukes of the Horites are the peoples of Edom who are called Hivites or Canaanites. Looked at in this light we should not be astonished to find that many if not the majority of the names both “Canaanites” and “Edomites” or children of Esau are, or were at one time present in the region.
       The genealogy recorded by Tabari of “al-Hamaysa…Nadir b. Humayl b. Munahhim, Lafath b. al-Sabuh b. Kinanah b. al Awwam b. Nabt b. Qaydar b. Ishmael” is possibly reference to biblical names of the Edomites or Horites named “Alvan” son of Shubal of Genesis 36:23. While Manahath is Munahhim or the modern Manhib clan of the Daws and Onam may also be the name of Ghunam or Ghanm. Together “These were the sons of Shubal (or Shobal): Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam” Genesis 36:23.
       In any case Shubal is almost certainly the same name as Shubayl of the Azd tribe of Banu Shihr in modern Asir (Jizan region) and Arab linguists should be able to tell us if this name of Al-Sabuh or Sabihi of the Dawasir in Nejd is a metathesis of the word Shubayl or Shubal.  The tribal name Hawamilah, like Nadir is part of the Farjan division of the Dawasir and corresponds to (or  the plural of ) Humayl, father of Nadir mentioned above. Hamaisa is perhaps the same as Khamais or Khamis a clan name of the Bidaran Dawasir (Lorimer, 1908, p. 394).
       Roger Upton in his book Gleanings from the Desert of Arabia mentions a related genealogy of the children of Ishmael or Kedar this way. “Kidar his son Hamal, then Nabt or Nabet, then Salaman the son of Nabet, then Al-Yas the son of Al-Hamaisa, then Odad the son of Al-Yas, then Od, Ad, or Oddo, the son of Odad, then Adnan the son of Oddo. Some authors place Nabet as the son of Kidar and others as the son of Ismail himself…” (Upton, 1881, p. 139)  Tabari mentions still another version “Udd ibn Udad ibn Yamin ibn Yashjub ibn Mun­har ibn Sabugh ibn Hamaysa” and he adds that one authority mentions “al‑Hamaysa` ibn Salaman ibn Nabt ibn Hamal ibn Qaydar”.  This Munhar just mentioned is evidently the Munahhim grandson of al-Sabuh b. Kinanah mentioned above.
       Still other genealogy cited in Ibn Sa’d and Tabari shows this Al-Awwam is in fact Alwan of the biblical Edomite list of the Horites: Alwan, and Manahath, and Aibal. He writes al-Awwam is son of  "Nashid b. Haza b. Bilda b. Yidlaf b. Tabakh b. Jaham b. Tahash b. Makha b. "Ayfa b. Abqar b. 'Ubayd b. al-Da'a b. Hamdan b. Sanbar b. Yathribi".
      Or else, as cited in the book Ar-Raheeq al Makhtumi, Ibn Sa'd has it "Humaisi b. Salaman bin Aws bin Buz bin Qamwal bin Ubaid bin ‘Awwam bin Nashid bin Haza bin Bildas bin Yadlaf …bin Hamdan bin Sanbir bin Yathrabi bin Yahzin bin Yalhan bin Ar’awi bin Aid bin Deshan bin Aisar bin Aqnad bin Aiham…Aram bin Qidar bin Ishmael” (Mubarakpuri, 2002, p. 63). (Corresponding to the children of Esau or Hamdan, Ishban, Ithran, Lotan (Yahzan al' Tana), Bilhan Reu'el, Dishan Eser Akan Aia and then Iram bin Kedar).
      The first part of this list corresponds to the biblical "children of Nahor" (in Genesis 22) who are Kemu'el, Uz, Buz, Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidleph, Teba, Gaham, Tahash, Makha of Genesis 22.  Ayfa is obviously "Yifi” said to be a son of Chesed in the “Book of Jasher” which says “And the sons of Kesed were Anamlech, Meshai, Benon and Yifi”. “Meshai” is called Mashha by Tabari who he says was also “Tahash” corresponding to the modern and ancient tribes of Dahash (Dawasir clan) and Yafi or Yafa'i.

Men of the Yafi bani Qased ("Yafi son of Chesed") (Ayfa/Yifi) tribe probably looking much like their Sabaean and  "Khasdim" or Chaldaean ancestors. 

        But the name of Khasid or Chesed has also survived until today in Yemen as the generic ancestor "Hashid". The sons of Yaf or Yafi'i are mentioned in the ancient Sabaean inscriptions as a clan of the Hashid (Kuryotev, p. 69; Schiettcatte, p. 40). Outside of the biblical genealogy the "Hashid" of the ancient world however were originally just but a small  tribe of the Sabaean tribe of Hamdan named in Sabaean inscriptions. According to Ibn Khaldun, Hashid was son of  "Jusham, son of Habwan son of Nauf son of Hamdan" ( Kay, H. C., 1892, p. 175). 
      Chasid or Hashid is the namesake of the  "Khasdim" of the Arabian Hauran (biblical Harran) and Numayr ibn Kassit, (Nimrod bin Arfakshad)  or Nimrod "son of Kush" who came to take over Babylon. Still another version of Nimrod's genealogy makes him son of Falaj (Peleg) son of Abir (Eber) son of Arfakshad - "the Ur (Aur) of the Chaldees". Thus Josephus also wrote, in his Antiquities of the Jews -  "Arfaksad named the Arfaksadites who are now called Chaldaeans". 
      The Banu Jusham were meanwhile one of the Jewish tribes of Arabia even in the Prophet Muhammed's time known as  "Banu Jusham ibn Yam, sub-tribe of Hamdan" (Kay, H. C., 1892,  p. 216). The Banu Yam are better known as the Israelite tribe of Beni -yamin or "Benjamin". Ben-oni was another name for Benjamin. Benon and Yafi were "sons of Chesed" in the book of Jasher. 
     There is no escaping the obvious. The biblical Khasdim and the tribe of Benjamin were the same as the tribes of the Qased ("Hashid"), Hamdan and Yam tribes of Kahlan from the Sabaeans and mentioned in Sabean inscriptions. Salibi identified Aur/Ur of the Khasdim or Arfakhshad with the modern name of "War Maqsud" in southern Arabia.  Thus, did several writers in ancient times say that the Jews or Judaeans and were from the philosophes of the same people from the "Kalani" or Kalantaean Indians, i.e.  southern Arabians the Kahlan of Himyar and Kahlan tradition.

A man of the Ba'l Obeid branch of the Masha'i (possibly the Meshai or Mashha) son of Kesed of the book of Jasher.
         The "dukes of the Horites" of Genesis 36:26-29 in these genealogies include Abchor, Bedad, Hadad, Hamdan, Eshban, Ithran, Bilhan, Reuel, Dishon, Dishan, Ezer, Aia or Ashjaa and Iram. And as both the book of Genesis and 1 Chronicles 1 say - these were "the dukes of Edom". The confirmation that the Dawasir or those known anciently as Kahlani and Himyari or Humayr were in fact the peoples once known in early texts as “Canaanites” or “Edomites” is illustrated when Tabari speaks of Hamdan being a son of Yashbin whom he says was “Bashmani,” son of Bathrani, son of Bahrani who was son of Yalhan, corresponding to the sons of Dishon and Dishan.
     Basman and Badran are Dawasir tribes. The Banu Djushain or Dishan and his brother Dishon are designated children of Se'ir the Horite. of Genesis 32: 26. They are Hamdan, and Eshban, Ithran, Aran sons of Dishan and Bilhan son of Ezer.And the name of Himyar is probably the same as "Hamor" ruler of Shechem, one of the first kings of Canaan to be mentioned in the Torah/Bible.
     Tabari writes the name Ezer as "Isar" or "Assir" which is another spelling of the name of the modern Asir or Asyr people and region. It suggests the area was named for a chief there in remote times. Tabari writes Eshban or Ishban  in three places as "Yashbin" and Bashman" and "Sanbar" (which is possible through metathesis), while the King James spelling of  Ithran was obviously Tabari's  "Bathran". And these names correspond to the Dawasir clans of Basman and Badran /Bidarin/Badrah (Lorimer, p. 394). The latter word is a name for the pleiades once venerated by these Afro-Arabians. (In fact all of these names likely have astronomical connections because that is what the original Arabian i.e. African Asiatic peoples religious beliefs were founded on.)
      Thus when the 11th century author of the Akbar al-Zaman wrote that Ishban was a "son of Sudan, son of Kan'an" it was specific reference to the Basman Dawasir of the region of Wadi Kanawna, i.e. the real "Canaan". When "Botr" is claimed to be descended from Mazik or Mazigh son of Canaan, it is also obviously reference to the Badr section of the Badran Dawasir whose lineage is "Badr bin Khamis bin A'amir bin Badran", while the name Mazik is found in the Azd tribe of Masikha" also once living in Wadi Kanawna (the valley of the Canaanites). Hamdan the biblical son of "Dishon" is also the name of a tribe of Dawasir (Lorimer, p. 394), and in the genealogy is in factt named grandson of Badr. The tribe is mentioned in pre-Islamic Sabean inscriptions as one that ruled over the clan of Hashid (Chesed/Kasdim) (Korotayev, A., 1996, p. 67-69)
      Dishon’s brother is Dishan or  (antelope or gazelle). Tabari writes it as “Dayshan b. Isar”, which is apparently the same as the name of  the Banu Djushayn or Jayshain another well-documented  tribe, part of  the Himyarite clan of Ru’ayn of Yemen noted in early Islamic texts (Mad’aj, p. 91).  
       Tabari makes Hamdan the father of a “Yazan al-Ta’an”, or Lotan one of the sons of Se’ir (the goat) (Genesis 32:22) whose sons are "Hori" and "Hemam". He says he was called “Yazan al-Ta’an” because he was the ruler who invented the lance.  This Hemam could only be referring to the Dawasir tribe of Hamamah. Bahran another Arabian tribal name is apparently Aran (he-goat) son of Dishan. This may be the Berane that appears in genealogy surrounding Berber origins. Although Berber and Arab historians claimed both the Berber ancestor Botr and Berane were descended from the same individual named “Berr” the Arabic writers claimed they were too different “Berrs” (Jones, 1958, p. 67-68). Abd al-Hakam wrote “These say that the Beranes were the children of Berr, a descendant of Mazigh, the son of Canaan; and that the Botr were the posterity of Berr the son of Cais…” from the sons of Ghailan.  
     This "Berr" is likely Barr said to be one of the sons of A'ad, as was Sawar or Sawr another legendary Tuareg (Sanhaja) ancestor (Hopkins, J.F. P and Levtzion, N., 2000, p. 236; Crosby, 2007, p. 89). The Tuareg claim to have come anciently from the Yemen and from "Canaan". Their early writers called him "Soowar son of Abd Shams son of Wathil (Wa'il)" or  "Suwar son of Wa'il son of Himyar" (See The Bombay Quarterly, 1853, Vol. 3 p. 64; Salem, S. I. and Kumar. A., 1991, p. 38).
       In any case both the Qays Ailan and the Mazigh had their roots in the Yemen. The former were ultimately descended from Akk who were from the Azd as well. (See Part I)
      Yalhan” is Tabari’s spelling of  the  biblical name Bilhan, “son of Ezer” whom Tabari calls “Asir” and is likely testified to in south Arabian inscriptions where a tribe of Alhan is mentioned among south Arabian inscriptions (Kuryotev, 1996, p. 175).  Furthermore the biblical Ezer has a son named Akan which is doubtless the tribe of "Yaqna" also mentioned in Sabaean inscriptions Kuryotev, 1996, p. 175). The biblical Se'ir is not Asir as some have suggested but most likely the name of the tirbe still known as Sei’ar in the Yemen and Hadramaut region even today.   
      In addition Tabari notes that the son of  “Daws” or Daus was in fact also called Bahami which suggests that the name of Daws was in fact corollary to Jeush “son of Oholibamah” (though the latter is said to be a woman in the Bible.) Daws remains the name of an important Dawasir tribe of the Azd Shara’t. As with other Azd tribes such as Masikha, they lived and live in the Asir Tihama Kanawna (Canaan) and in Nejd of Central Arabia as well (Khanam, p. 66; Lorimer,  p. 394). As mentioned previously scholars have identified “a number of Azd Sarat settlements as reflected in early Islamic sources”  – including Daws and Masikha  (Ulrich, 2008, p. 87.)
     In addition, there is another Dawasir tribe called Nahadh likely corresponding to the biblical Nahath son of Reul son of Esau (Genesis 36:13), the name of the modern Rou'ala or Ruwala bin An'aesa of modern Syria (and now partly Syrian in biological origin) descends from the name of  this "Reul". The original An'aeis or Anaeza (signifying the tribe of Aeis or "Esau") were originally from the Taghlib bin Wa'il an early branch of the Dawasir that came to be considered "Adnanite"(Hamzah, 1983, p. 17; Khanam, 2005, p. 180).
        In fact many other Dawasir clans of Azd are clearly listed in each of these genealogical versions which include a considerable portion of the Edomite/Horites of the Genesis book. However the ancestors of the Azd – including the Kahlan and Himyarites as a whole - seem to have preserved the majority of names the Biblical peoples in general. This begins with Shem and through the children of Nahor, and generations of Esau (Aeis), “who is Edom”. 
Dawasir ("Sebaim") of Central Arabia are traditional remnants of Sabean Azd, i.e. the stock of Ad  from Edom (al Shahra) and the lowland of Kanawna (Canaan) in southern Arabia.
          The Hebrew book of  Genesis concerning Abraham’s direct descendants, and Genesis 36 concerning the Edomites mentions the many clans of  Kahlan deemed clans of Hamdan and Azd all situated today  within a region between the Asir, Najd and Hadramaut in what was then known as the Yaman – anciently considered part “Ethiopia” or “India Minor”. Beginning with Genesis 5: 10-20  are named the Dawasir clans of Nejd - Hanaish or Hanais, Qainan, Wusailah, Araimah (also Aryamah), Al-Mahli, seemingly corresponding to Enosh or Enos, Qainan, Uzal, Aram, Mahali’el, direct descendants of Adam’s son Seth according to in the Bible.
       Al- Hanaish  (Enosh) are a large clan of the Dawasir (Enosh/Hanaish - means serpent) (Lorimer p. 395) “And Enos lived after he begat Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters”.
     Qainan clan of the Dawasir  (Cainan ) - is the name of a major proportion Dawasir tribe (Lorimer, p. 393). They are named in Yemenite texts a batn or clan of Aus from the Azd  (Madhaj, p. 229)  The 4th century Syriac work “Cave of Treasures” the explanation that Canaan's curse was actually earned because of his connection with Cain. “And Cainan lived seventy years, and begat Mahalaleel” 
      El-Mahli or Mahl (Mahali’el/Mahaleel) clans found among both the Dawasir and Mahra   “And Mahali’el lived sixty and five years, and begat Jared” Genesis 5:6.  The current Mahl belong to the Farjan subdivision of al-Hasan Dawasir.
      Gharid (Jared meaning locust) still exists as the name of a Mahra tribe, and elsewhere as Jahrad or Yahrad. The tribe of "Yahrad" is mentioned in ancient Sabaean inscriptions. “And Jared lived an hundred sixty and two years, and he begat Enoch:  And Jared lived after he begat Enoch eight hundred years, and begat sons and daughters” 
      An-Nakha/Nakha'l  (Enoch) -  a branch of the Maddhij of Yemen.

         These Afro-Arab ancestors were supposed to have lived before “Nuah al Djurhumi (Hadoram)” whose son Eber or Heber (A’aber or Abir) according to the Hebrew tradition bore Peleg (Faligh or Falaj) and Joktan (Kahtan or Qahtan). This is why the chief deities of the south Arabian Minaeans and Sabeans  Wadd, Suwa, Nasr, Yaghuth  or Ya’uq worshipped even in early Islamic times by the Maddhij, Murad, Kalb and Hudhail are considered by Muslims and the Quran  “the idols of Noah's folk” (Mubarakpuri, p. 45).
       Shem’s first son was Ailam (Elam) the name of an Arabian tribe who probably settled early in southern Iran, and others were Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud and Aram. “Aram was the ancestor of Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash”.  Early Muslim historians of the Middle east and Central Asia  like Tabari and Suyuti have provided similar genealogies “Salih b. Ubayd b. Asif b. Masikh b. Ubayd b. Hadhir b. Thamud b. Ad b. Uz b. Aram b. Shem” (Wheeler, p. 76).  Suyuti used the name “Mashij” for Masikh. In 1 Chroncles 1:17 the name is given as "Meshech" (meshekh), and the Septuagint uses "Mosoch" for Mash son of Aram.
     Other writers make Thamud the son of Abir bin Aram who is biblical "Eber". Or else he is said to be the son of Jatiar or Jathar bin Aram, who is the biblical Gether or Jetur.  Ibn Kathir wrote “Thamud bin ' Athir bin Iram.” And Surah 11: 61 of the Quran reads “So Allah sent unto them His Prophet Salih, a man from among them. His name was Salih Ibn 'Ubeid, Ibn Maseh, Ibn 'Ubeid, Ibn Hader, Ibn Thamud, Ibn Ather, Ibn Eram, Ibn Noah.” Surah 11: 61 This line clearly represents the children of Ishmael, Abdeel or Abdi’el,  Massa, Hadar, Dumah,  Ithran or Jetur.  
        They also agree that Uz or "Aws" was son of Aram and the ancestors of Ad lived in southern Yemen in what is now Hadramaut or Al-Akhaf where Noah’s people the Djurhum or Hadoram once dwelt.
      Today the Mahra a tribe of Hadramaut and Oman still have clans called Samudayt and Masikha or Masaka. And according to Ibn Mudjawir who traveled in southern Arabia, the Mahra of his time were tall and remnants of the stock of Ad.  He wrote, “the origin of the Mahra is to be sought in the remains of the people of 'Ad; when God destroyed the greater part of them, this group of people was saved and went to live in the mountains of Zufar and the islands of Sukutra (Socotra), and al-Masira” (Muller, W., 1986, p. 82).
       Shelah or Sala in the book of Genesis is called Salih, Saleh or Caleh in the Quran and in Arab accounts. And he is designated the father of Eber or Abir or A’aber in Chronicles Genesis 11.  While in Arab tradition Abir or A’aber is said to be a cousin of Salih, both are from the Adite tribe of Thamud, sometimes translated as ‘Samud”.  Traditionally “Samud the son of A’aber had two sons: one was Arem and the other was Jaber who begat Caleh … It is also said that “ When the people of the first A’adites were destroyed by a terrible wind, some of them took refuge among the Ahkaf sands, where they settled but worshipped idols. There they were visited by the prophet Caleh, a cousin of A'aber Ben Arem, the reigning king of the Samudites…” (Rehatsek, E., 1869 p. 208).
       The people known as Samud, (Thamud, Damud or Thamudenoi named the town of Duma’at al- Jandal, It was the Adummatu of Assyrian texts in Jordan. And in fact it is seen that Thamud is Dumah son of Ishmael of the Bible.  A commentary of Al Beidawi makes Salih “the son of Obeid or the son of Asaf, the son of Masekh, the son of Obeid, the son of Hâdher, the son of Thamûd”.  Masekh is also translated as Masih or Masihah by some authors, and these names correspond to the biblical translators’ Massa, Abde’el, Hadad or Hadar, Dumah and Ithran or Jether, "children of Ishmael" of Genesis 25:13-15.
         As just mentioned the Mahra have a clan named Masaka or el-Masaka (Badger, G., 1871, p. 57 and 58; Newton, L. S., 2007, p. 360 ). They may have a connection to the historical Masikha of the Azd belonging to the Azd Sarat (or Sharawi) mentioned by Sa’id of Andalusia and others. Speaking of the Azd dispersal after the bursting for the dam at Marib, he says that the peoples called  "Masihah, Myda’an, Lahab, Amir, Yashkur, Bariq, Ali ibn Uthman, Shamran, al Hujr ibn al Hind, and Daws went into al- Surat" (See Science in the Medieval World, Alok Kumar and Sema’an Salem, p. 43, 1996).
       Please note here that in Part I and 2 of this posting and in previous postings we have identified this south Arabian Marib as Meribah of the Exodus in the land of Sura’t or Shahrawat as Edom near the valley Canaan (Kanawna) and its people as the biblical Mashek or Mash of Aram/Iram, Midianites (Myda'an),  Lehubim (Lahab), Issachar (Yashkur) the Israelite, Barak the Israelite, Shimran (Shamran -who are better known as Samaritans) and Jeush (Daus) the Edomite. It is not impossible that the Kudha' or Qudha'a tribes were thus nothing other than the Kuthaeans or Samaritans in the ancient world.

Historically Documented “Children of Shem” in their Lands and Places

Joktan was the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, Obal Abimael, Sheba, Ophir Havilah and Jobab. All these were sons of Joktan.”

       As mentioned in earlier posts the name Qahtan in the book of Genesis is Joktan. Although most people living in southern Yemen claim Qahtan ancestry, the present speakers of the ancient Qahtan dialects who besides still also resembling sub-Saharan Africans with their dark brown complexions and “fuzzy hair”, also retain tradition of African descent.  These are in the main the “Ethiopians” that the early Greek writers spoke of as sending great armies into foreign countries. It is these true African-Asiatics or blacks of peninsular Arabia and the “Arabia” in Africa from which were derived the traditions of Noah and his Ark or  “Nu” as the ancient Nilotes called him, and much of the mythology of the countries they settled in to the east to the north and to the west.  
        Hadramaut is the name of a country today which was named for a tribal region in the south of the Yemen. Hadoram that is the people named after a Sabaean tribe mentioned in inscriptions called Hadrami. Arab authors like Ibn Abd Rabbih write the name is Djurham or Djorhum, sometimes said to be a clan pre-Arabs was the same the Hadoram of the Hebrew texts.Some of them lived in the vicinity of Mecca until the 1930s.
      Sulaf (Sheleph a partridge) -  Al- Sulaf are designated  a batn or clan of the Himyarites a branch of Dhu al- Kala’a in the early Islamic period (Mad'aj, p. 1988, p. 88). The second in order of the tribes of Joktan in the book of Genesis is Sheleph. Yaqut mentions them in the Yemen as Es-Selif or As-Shulaf. Sixty miles south of Sana’a is the district named from them as-Sulaf.  (Dr. William Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible. 1888,Volum 4,  p. 2967)
       Ebal -  The town of Obal is found in Sabean inscriptions and one mentions the “children of Abalim”. It was also a place name mentioned by the 9th century al-Hamdani between Sana’a  and Asir (Retso p. 220) There is also an Ubal located between Hadeida ((Hudaydah) and Sanaa, the capital of Yemen which must be the same. (Hamilton, 1990 p. 345).
      Jobab -  A Sabean tribe of Yuhaybab is known to have existed from inscriptions. (Mathews, K. A., 1996,  p. 465)  According to modern archaelogists these  inscriptions state that during the second half of the 2nd millennium b.c. during the reign of the kings of Saba, a confederation of Sam’i or Sumay consisted of the tribes of Yursham, Yuhaybab and Madhnahan or Ma'dhin  (Kuryotev, 1996, p. 175; Schiettecatte, 2011, p.  ) The first of these names is obviously Jursham possibly "Gershom" of the Bible whose son or otherwise descendant is named “Shubael” (Shobal). (See above the Shubayl of the Azd Part II) Gershom is son of Moses in 1 Chronicles 26:24 from the clan of Amram (father of Moses). Meanwhile Ma'dhan or Madhin sounds curiously like Madan "brother of Midian".
        Almodad, in Arabic works called Al-Mudad or Al-Mirith’ad in Yemenite records was another Himyarite ruler whose land was in Yemen.. He is called the chief of the Djorhum who settled in Hijaz and sometimes said to be son of Shedad of Hadramaut, the son of A’ad. It is said that Ishmael son of Hagar of Misrah married a daughter of Al-Mudad and from them sprang the Northern Arabs (Smith, W. and Fuller, J. M., 1893, p. 215).
      Shedad or Shaddad the brother of Luqman (see part I on Loqman) is considered to have conquered much of Iraq and India in ancient times, and his cousin was said to be Zohhak or Az Dahhak who had been ruling Central Asia. Also, “According to Makrizi (1' I441), the Adite king who marched against Egypt was Shaddad ben Haddad ben Shaddad ben Ad, But this “Egypt” may have been comprised of or  included the Arabian region Misra which archaeologists have called Musri or Musur (Cheyne, T., 1899, p.555). In the Bible “Hadad son of Bedad” is called an Edomite king who reigned over Aram in the time of Solomon.
      Shaddad erected the fabled magnificent city in the deserts of Aden called Arem or Iram (Aram in English). It had a large towers and golden palaces with lofty pillars, perfumed gardens with richly laden with fruit. Supposedly because of the pride of Sheddad the city was destroyed by God. Shaddad and Ad are today pictured in fable as of extraordinary stature some up to 100 cubits high that have become extinct, due to the fact that the stories surrounding Ad are based on mythology and cosmological notions.
      The stories of Shadad, Hadad, Ad, Adad and Attis of the Lydians and Babylonians, Titans, Atlantaeans etc., are all closely connected folklore incorporating cosmoastronomical knowledge. Like the Aad or Adites, the Thamud were said to have been giants as well dwelling in caves and rocks.  As has been shown previously, neither the A’adites nor the Thamud, nor Amalek the first rulers of the Himyarites and their Azd descendants (Canaanites) were ever giants in that sense although apparently many of their probable descendants apparently remain a lot taller in Arabia and Africa than surrounding populations.  Nor were they made extinct - the Azd, A’ad Amalek and Thamud being real populations who have to some extent retained their tribal names and appearance. A tribe of Shadad is mentioned in early Sabaean inscriptions.
     The children of A’ad according to Abid and al-Hamdani included As, Bahar, Thamud, as-Sawr, Rifd, Sawd, Barr, Abu Sa'id al-Mu'min Marthad and Sudd.  Thamud, as-Sawr, Rifd, Sawd, Barr and Sudd. Barr is probable the Berr and Sawar of Tuareg legend.
     This Mumin or Marthad (Almodad) may have served for the story or mythology of Maimoun or Mammon. If so, he is probably best known as Memnon “the Ethiopian”, son of Tithonus. (See Elyse Crosby,  pp. 90, 100, 128, 137) Richard Burton wrote that in the area of the Musra Harb tribal confederation (western Arabia) was what was known in Pliny's writings as "the shore of Hammaeum (var. Mammaeum and Mamaeum, now the coast of Hamidha or El-Hamidah), in which there are gold mines; the region of Canauna : the nations of the Apitami, and the Cassani” (See Burton's, Gold-mines of Midian p. 254). The names Apitami and Cassani (Ghassan) refers to Abida and Jokshan brethren of Midian in Genesis.  …(to be continued).

***Please note that with little difficulty we have identified the many ancient and modern Sabaean clans of the Dawasir or Azd and of the Mahra and Maddhij from the ancient Hamdan Sabaeans as the peoples known biblically and in the Quran as Shem and Ham.  In the coming posts we shall see how these clans of African-Asiatics expanded northward and eastward colonizing various places in EurAsia coming to be known as “Japhet”. We will also provide evidence of the totemistic, astro-cosmological and allegorical origins and significances of these tribal names.


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